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Pivnenko, K., Granby, K., Eriksson, E. & Astrup, T. F. (2017). Recycling of plastic waste: screening for brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Waste Management, 69(November), 101-109
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recycling of plastic waste: screening for brominated flame retardants (BFRs)
2017 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 69, no November, p. 101-109Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flame retardants are chemicals vital for reducing risks of fire and preventing human casualties and property losses. Due to the abundance, low cost and high performance of bromine, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have had a significant share of the market for years. Physical stability on the other hand, has resulted in dispersion and accumulation of selected BFRs in the environment and receiving biota. A wide range of plastic products may contain BFRs. This affects the quality of waste plastics as secondary resource: material recycling may potentially reintroduce the BFRs into new plastic product cycles and lead to increased exposure levels, e.g. through use of plastic packaging materials. To provide quantitative and qualitative data on presence of BFRs in plastics, we analysed bromophenols (tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), dibromophenols (2,4- and 2,6-DBP) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP)), hexabromocyclododecane stereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD), as well as selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in samples of household waste plastics, virgin and recycled plastics. A considerable number of samples contained BFRs, with highest concentrations associated with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS, up to 26,000,000 ng TBBPA/g) and polystyrene (PS, up to 330,000 ng ∑HBCD/g). Abundancy in low concentrations of some BFRs in plastic samples suggested either unintended addition in plastic products or degradation of higher molecular weight BFRs. The presence of currently restricted flame retardants (PBDEs and HBCD) identified in the plastic samples illustrates that circular material flows may be contaminated for extended periods. The screening clearly showed a need for improved documentation and monitoring of the presence of BFRs in plastic waste routed to recycling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Organic Chemistry Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-75136 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2017.08.038 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-06-06 Created: 2018-06-06 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Pivnenko, K., Olsson, M. E., Götze, R., Eriksson, E. & Astrup, T. F. (2016). Quantification of chemical contaminants in the paper and board fractions of municipal solid waste. Waste Management, 51, 43-54
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantification of chemical contaminants in the paper and board fractions of municipal solid waste
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2016 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 51, p. 43-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chemicals are used in materials as additives in order to improve the performance of the material or the production process itself. The presence of these chemicals in recyclable waste materials may potentially affect the recyclability of the materials. The addition of chemicals may vary depending on the production technology or the potential end-use of the material. Paper has been previously shown to potentially contain a large variety of chemicals. Quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper are necessary for appropriate waste paper management, including the recycling and re-processing of paper. However, a lack of quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper is evident in the literature. The aim of the present work is to quantify the presence of selected chemicals in waste paper derived from households. Samples of paper and board were collected from Danish households, including both residual and source-segregated materials, which were disposed of (e.g., through incineration) and recycled, respectively. The concentration of selected chemicals was quantified for all of the samples. The quantified chemicals included mineral oil hydrocarbons, phthalates, phenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, and selected toxic metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb). The results suggest large variations in the concentration of chemicals depending on the waste paper fraction analysed. Research on the fate of chemicals in waste recycling and potential problem mitigation measures should be focused on in further studies.

Keywords
Waste Management and Disposal, Additives, EDCs, MSW, Organic pollutants, Phthalates, Recycling, Cadmium, Chemicals, Esters, Incineration, Lead, Waste incineration, Waste management, Waste paper, Chemical contaminants, Mitigation measures, Potential problems, Production process, Production technology, Quantitative data, Municipal solid waste
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-66331 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2016.03.008 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-07-05 Created: 2017-07-05 Last updated: 2017-11-10Bibliographically approved
Pivnenko, K., Eriksen, M. K., Martín-Fernández, J. A., Eriksson, E. & Astrup, T. F. (2016). Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry. Waste Management, 54, 44-52
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry
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2016 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 54, p. 44-52Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large volumes and are commonly used as plasticisers in plastics manufacturing. Potential impacts on human health require restricted use in selected applications and a need for the closer monitoring of potential sources of human exposure. Although the presence of phthalates in a variety of plastics has been recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP had the highest frequency of detection in the samples analysed, with 360 μg/g, 460 μg/g and 2700 μg/g as the maximum measured concentrations, respectively. Among other, statistical analysis of the analytical results suggested that phthalates were potentially added in the later stages of plastic product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications is recommended if recycled plastics are to be used as raw material in production.

Keywords
Waste Management and Disposal, Compositional data, Contaminants, Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), Quality recycling, Solid waste, Chemicals, Elastomers, Endocrine disrupters, Esters, Impurities, Manufacture, Plastic products, Plastics applications, Potassium compounds, Recycling, Solid wastes, Solvents, Analytical results, Endocrine disrupting chemicals, Plastics manufacturing, Plastics recycling, Potential indicators, Product manufacturing, Sensitive application, Plastics industry
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-66638 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2016.05.014 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-07-05 Created: 2017-07-05 Last updated: 2017-11-10Bibliographically approved
Pivnenko, K., Pedersen, G. A., Eriksson, E. & Astrup, T. F. (2015). Bisphenol A and its structural analogues in household waste paper. Waste Management, 44, 39-47
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bisphenol A and its structural analogues in household waste paper
2015 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 44, p. 39-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical produced in large volumes. Its main use is associated with polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resins and thermal paper. In contrast to other applications, thermal paper contains BPA in its un-reacted form as an additive, which is subjected to migration. Receiving a significant amount of attention from the scientific community and beyond, due to its controversial endocrine-disrupting effects, the industry is attempting to substitute BPA in variety of applications. Alternative phenolic compounds have been proposed for use in thermal paper; however, information to what extent BPA alternatives have been used in paper is sparse. The aim of the present work was to quantify BPA and its alternatives (bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol B (BPB), 4-cumylphenol (HPP) and bisphenol F (BPF)) in waste paper and board from Danish households, thermal paper receipts, non-carbon copy paper and conventional printer paper. BPA was found in all waste paper samples analysed, while BPS was identified in 73% of them. Only BPB was not identified in any of the samples. BPA and BPS were found in the majority of the receipts, which contained no measurable concentrations of the remaining alternatives. Although receipts showed the highest concentrations of BPA and BPS, office paper, flyers and corrugated boxes, together with receipts, represented the major flux of the two compounds in waste paper streams.

Keywords
EDCs, Bisphenol F, Bisphenol S, MSW, Hazardous substances
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-66640 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2015.07.017 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-07-05 Created: 2017-07-05 Last updated: 2017-11-10Bibliographically approved
Pivnenko, K., Eriksson, E. & Astrup, T. F. (2015). Chemicals in material cycles. In: S. Margherita di Pula (Ed.), : . Paper presented at Fifteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium 2015. Cagliari, Italy: CISA Publisher
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemicals in material cycles
2015 (English)In: / [ed] S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy: CISA Publisher , 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Material recycling has been found beneficial in terms of resource and energy performance and is greatly promoted throughout the world. A variety of chemicals is used inmaterials as additives and data on their presence is sparse. The present work dealt with paper as recyclable material and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) as chemical in focus. The results showed variations, between 0.83 and 32 μg/g, in the presence of DiBP in Danish waste paper and board and potential accumulation due to recycling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cagliari, Italy: CISA Publisher, 2015
National Category
Organic Chemistry Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-87210 (URN)
Conference
Fifteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium 2015
Note

Article in proceedings

Available from: 2019-08-08 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2019-08-09
Nielsen, K., Mørch-Madsen, A., Mikkelsen, P. S. & Eriksson, E. (2015). Effect of Disc Filtration with and without Addition of Flocculent on Nano- and Micro-Particles and Their Associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Stormwater. Water, 7(3), 1306-1323
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Disc Filtration with and without Addition of Flocculent on Nano- and Micro-Particles and Their Associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Stormwater
2015 (English)In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 1306-1323Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many municipalities in Denmark and around Europe currently work towards separating stormwater and sewage. In existing urban areas this may imply disconnecting stormwater from the old combined sewer systems suffering from hydraulic overloading and discharging directly to nearby surface waters. Stormwater runoff may, however, be heavily polluted and Best Available Technologies (BAT) are therefore needed to treat the stormwater before discharge. The aim here was to determine the sizes of particles found in stormwater from roads and to evaluate the use of a cationic organic flocculant to increase the size of the particles and thereby increase the removal efficiency of a 10 µm woven polyester disc filter. The samples were collected in connection with a project testing a pilot scale disc filter for treating stormwater runoff. The micro-sized particles were found to be mainly below 10 µm (6.9–19 µm) and nano-sized particles were also observed (ca. 76–228 nm). The flocculent increased the observed particle micrometer sizes by 46% and the removal of particle-associate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) was confirmed. The majority of the particles were, however, still below 10 µm after addition of flocculant, which shows that application of flocculants with the woven disc filter technology for stormwater treatment needs further refinement.

Keywords
Particle size distribution, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Runoff
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-66643 (URN)10.3390/w7031306 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-07-05 Created: 2017-07-05 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Markiewicz, A., Hvitt Strömvall, A.-M., Björklund, K., Kalmykova, Y., Eriksson, E. & Siopi, A. (2015). Emissions of Organic Pollutants from Traffic and Roads: Priority Pollutants Selection and Substance Flow Analysis. In: : . Paper presented at 12th Urban Environment Symposium.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emissions of Organic Pollutants from Traffic and Roads: Priority Pollutants Selection and Substance Flow Analysis
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-87211 (URN)
Conference
12th Urban Environment Symposium
Note

Poster

Available from: 2019-08-08 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2019-08-09
Eriksson, E., Hörsing, M. & Ledin, A. (2015). Organic micropollutants in sugar beets cultivated in sludge amended soil. In: : . Paper presented at DTU Sustain Conference 2015. Lyngby: Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Article ID F-13.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic micropollutants in sugar beets cultivated in sludge amended soil
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lyngby: Technical University of Denmark (DTU), 2015
National Category
Environmental Sciences Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-87212 (URN)
Conference
DTU Sustain Conference 2015
Note

Poster presentation; Conference abstract in proceedings

Available from: 2019-08-08 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2019-08-09
Nielsen, K., Kalmykova, Y., Strömvall, A.-M., Baun, A. & Eriksson, E. (2015). Particle phase distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater: Using humic acid and iron nano-sized colloids as test particles. Science of the Total Environment, 532, 103-111
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particle phase distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater: Using humic acid and iron nano-sized colloids as test particles
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2015 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 532, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different particulate fractions in stormwater: Total, Particulate, Filtrated, Colloidal and Dissolved fractions, were examined and compared to synthetic suspensions of humic acid colloids and iron nano-sized particles. The distribution of low-molecular weight PAHs (LMW PAHs), middle-molecular weight PAHs (MMWPAHs) and high-molecularweight PAHs (HMWPAHs) among the fractions was also evaluated. The results from the synthetic suspensions showed that the highest concentrations of the PAHs were found in the Filtrated fractions and, surprisingly, high loads were found in the Dissolved fractions. The PAHs identified in stormwater in the Particulate fractions and Dissolved fractions follow their hydrophobic properties. In most samples N50% of the HMW PAHs were found in the Particulate fractions, while the LMW and MMW PAHs were found to a higher extent in the Filtrated fractions. The highest concentrations of PAHs were present in the stormwater with the highest total suspended solids (TSS); the relative amount of the HMWPAHs was highest in the Particulate fractions (particles N 0.7 μm). The highest concentration of PAHs in the Colloidal fraction was found in the sample with occurrence of small nano-sized particles (b10 nm). The results show the importance of developing technologies that both can manage particulate matter and effectively remove PAHs present in the Colloidal and Dissolved fractions in stormwater.

Keywords
Colloid enhanced transport, Liquid–liquid extraction, Solid phase extraction, Particle sorption, Urban stormwater
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-66646 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.05.093 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-07-05 Created: 2017-07-05 Last updated: 2017-11-10Bibliographically approved
Pivnenko, K., Eriksson, E. & Astrup, T. F. (2015). Waste paper for recycling: Overview and identification of potentially critical substances. Waste Management, 45, 134-142
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Waste paper for recycling: Overview and identification of potentially critical substances
2015 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 45, p. 134-142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Paper product manufacturing involves a variety of chemicals used either directly in paper and pulp production or in the conversion processes (i.e. printing, gluing) that follow. Due to economic and environmental initiatives, paper recycling rates continue to rise. In Europe, recycling has increased by nearly 20% within the last decade or so, reaching a level of almost 72% in 2012. With increasing recycling rates, lower quality paper fractions may be included. This may potentially lead to accumulation or un-intended spreading of chemical substances contained in paper, e.g. by introducing chemicals contained in waste paper into the recycling loop. This study provides an overview of chemicals potentially present in paper and applies a sequential hazard screening procedure based on the intrinsic hazard, physical-chemical and biodegradability characteristics of the substances. Based on the results, 51 substances were identified as potentially critical (selected mineral oils, phthalates, phenols, parabens, as well as other groups of chemicals) in relation to paper recycling. It is recommended that these substances receive more attention in waste paper.

Keywords
Hazardous substances, Paper, Priority pollutants, Recycling, Waste management, Biodegradation, Biohazards, Chemical hazards, Chemicals, Hazards, Indicators (chemical), Waste paper, Chemical substance, Conversion process, Environmental initiatives, Paper and pulp production, Product manufacturing, Screening procedures
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-66648 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2015.02.028 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-07-05 Created: 2017-07-05 Last updated: 2017-11-10Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5472-8553

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