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Pivnenko, K., Olsson, M. E., Götze, R., Eriksson, E. & Astrup, T. F. (2016). Quantification of chemical contaminants in the paper and board fractions of municipal solid waste. Waste Management, 51, 43-54.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantification of chemical contaminants in the paper and board fractions of municipal solid waste
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2016 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 51, 43-54 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chemicals are used in materials as additives in order to improve the performance of the material or the production process itself. The presence of these chemicals in recyclable waste materials may potentially affect the recyclability of the materials. The addition of chemicals may vary depending on the production technology or the potential end-use of the material. Paper has been previously shown to potentially contain a large variety of chemicals. Quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper are necessary for appropriate waste paper management, including the recycling and re-processing of paper. However, a lack of quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper is evident in the literature. The aim of the present work is to quantify the presence of selected chemicals in waste paper derived from households. Samples of paper and board were collected from Danish households, including both residual and source-segregated materials, which were disposed of (e.g., through incineration) and recycled, respectively. The concentration of selected chemicals was quantified for all of the samples. The quantified chemicals included mineral oil hydrocarbons, phthalates, phenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, and selected toxic metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb). The results suggest large variations in the concentration of chemicals depending on the waste paper fraction analysed. Research on the fate of chemicals in waste recycling and potential problem mitigation measures should be focused on in further studies.

Keyword
Waste Management and Disposal, Additives, EDCs, MSW, Organic pollutants, Phthalates, Recycling, Cadmium, Chemicals, Esters, Incineration, Lead, Waste incineration, Waste management, Waste paper, Chemical contaminants, Mitigation measures, Potential problems, Production process, Production technology, Quantitative data, Municipal solid waste
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-66331 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2016.03.008 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-07-05 Created: 2017-07-05 Last updated: 2017-11-10Bibliographically approved
Pivnenko, K., Eriksen, M. K., Martín-Fernández, J. A., Eriksson, E. & Astrup, T. F. (2016). Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry. Waste Management, 54, 44-52.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry
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2016 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 54, 44-52 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large volumes and are commonly used as plasticisers in plastics manufacturing. Potential impacts on human health require restricted use in selected applications and a need for the closer monitoring of potential sources of human exposure. Although the presence of phthalates in a variety of plastics has been recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP had the highest frequency of detection in the samples analysed, with 360 μg/g, 460 μg/g and 2700 μg/g as the maximum measured concentrations, respectively. Among other, statistical analysis of the analytical results suggested that phthalates were potentially added in the later stages of plastic product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications is recommended if recycled plastics are to be used as raw material in production.

Keyword
Waste Management and Disposal, Compositional data, Contaminants, Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), Quality recycling, Solid waste, Chemicals, Elastomers, Endocrine disrupters, Esters, Impurities, Manufacture, Plastic products, Plastics applications, Potassium compounds, Recycling, Solid wastes, Solvents, Analytical results, Endocrine disrupting chemicals, Plastics manufacturing, Plastics recycling, Potential indicators, Product manufacturing, Sensitive application, Plastics industry
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-66638 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2016.05.014 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-07-05 Created: 2017-07-05 Last updated: 2017-11-10Bibliographically approved
Pivnenko, K., Pedersen, G. A., Eriksson, E. & Astrup, T. F. (2015). Bisphenol A and its structural analogues in household waste paper. Waste Management, 44, 39-47.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bisphenol A and its structural analogues in household waste paper
2015 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 44, 39-47 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical produced in large volumes. Its main use is associated with polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resins and thermal paper. In contrast to other applications, thermal paper contains BPA in its un-reacted form as an additive, which is subjected to migration. Receiving a significant amount of attention from the scientific community and beyond, due to its controversial endocrine-disrupting effects, the industry is attempting to substitute BPA in variety of applications. Alternative phenolic compounds have been proposed for use in thermal paper; however, information to what extent BPA alternatives have been used in paper is sparse. The aim of the present work was to quantify BPA and its alternatives (bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol B (BPB), 4-cumylphenol (HPP) and bisphenol F (BPF)) in waste paper and board from Danish households, thermal paper receipts, non-carbon copy paper and conventional printer paper. BPA was found in all waste paper samples analysed, while BPS was identified in 73% of them. Only BPB was not identified in any of the samples. BPA and BPS were found in the majority of the receipts, which contained no measurable concentrations of the remaining alternatives. Although receipts showed the highest concentrations of BPA and BPS, office paper, flyers and corrugated boxes, together with receipts, represented the major flux of the two compounds in waste paper streams.

Keyword
EDCs, Bisphenol F, Bisphenol S, MSW, Hazardous substances
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-66640 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2015.07.017 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-07-05 Created: 2017-07-05 Last updated: 2017-11-10Bibliographically approved
Nielsen, K., Mørch-Madsen, A., Mikkelsen, P. S. & Eriksson, E. (2015). Effect of Disc Filtration with and without Addition of Flocculent on Nano- and Micro-Particles and Their Associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Stormwater. Water, 7(3), 1306-1323.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Disc Filtration with and without Addition of Flocculent on Nano- and Micro-Particles and Their Associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Stormwater
2015 (English)In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 7, no 3, 1306-1323 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many municipalities in Denmark and around Europe currently work towards separating stormwater and sewage. In existing urban areas this may imply disconnecting stormwater from the old combined sewer systems suffering from hydraulic overloading and discharging directly to nearby surface waters. Stormwater runoff may, however, be heavily polluted and Best Available Technologies (BAT) are therefore needed to treat the stormwater before discharge. The aim here was to determine the sizes of particles found in stormwater from roads and to evaluate the use of a cationic organic flocculant to increase the size of the particles and thereby increase the removal efficiency of a 10 µm woven polyester disc filter. The samples were collected in connection with a project testing a pilot scale disc filter for treating stormwater runoff. The micro-sized particles were found to be mainly below 10 µm (6.9–19 µm) and nano-sized particles were also observed (ca. 76–228 nm). The flocculent increased the observed particle micrometer sizes by 46% and the removal of particle-associate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) was confirmed. The majority of the particles were, however, still below 10 µm after addition of flocculant, which shows that application of flocculants with the woven disc filter technology for stormwater treatment needs further refinement.

Keyword
Particle size distribution, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Runoff
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-66643 (URN)10.3390/w7031306 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-07-05 Created: 2017-07-05 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Nielsen, K., Kalmykova, Y., Strömvall, A.-M., Baun, A. & Eriksson, E. (2015). Particle phase distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater: Using humic acid and iron nano-sized colloids as test particles. Science of the Total Environment, 532, 103-111.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particle phase distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater: Using humic acid and iron nano-sized colloids as test particles
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2015 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 532, 103-111 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different particulate fractions in stormwater: Total, Particulate, Filtrated, Colloidal and Dissolved fractions, were examined and compared to synthetic suspensions of humic acid colloids and iron nano-sized particles. The distribution of low-molecular weight PAHs (LMW PAHs), middle-molecular weight PAHs (MMWPAHs) and high-molecularweight PAHs (HMWPAHs) among the fractions was also evaluated. The results from the synthetic suspensions showed that the highest concentrations of the PAHs were found in the Filtrated fractions and, surprisingly, high loads were found in the Dissolved fractions. The PAHs identified in stormwater in the Particulate fractions and Dissolved fractions follow their hydrophobic properties. In most samples N50% of the HMW PAHs were found in the Particulate fractions, while the LMW and MMW PAHs were found to a higher extent in the Filtrated fractions. The highest concentrations of PAHs were present in the stormwater with the highest total suspended solids (TSS); the relative amount of the HMWPAHs was highest in the Particulate fractions (particles N 0.7 μm). The highest concentration of PAHs in the Colloidal fraction was found in the sample with occurrence of small nano-sized particles (b10 nm). The results show the importance of developing technologies that both can manage particulate matter and effectively remove PAHs present in the Colloidal and Dissolved fractions in stormwater.

Keyword
Colloid enhanced transport, Liquid–liquid extraction, Solid phase extraction, Particle sorption, Urban stormwater
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-66646 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.05.093 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-07-05 Created: 2017-07-05 Last updated: 2017-11-10Bibliographically approved
Pivnenko, K., Eriksson, E. & Astrup, T. F. (2015). Waste paper for recycling: Overview and identification of potentially critical substances. Waste Management, 45, 134-142.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Waste paper for recycling: Overview and identification of potentially critical substances
2015 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 45, 134-142 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Paper product manufacturing involves a variety of chemicals used either directly in paper and pulp production or in the conversion processes (i.e. printing, gluing) that follow. Due to economic and environmental initiatives, paper recycling rates continue to rise. In Europe, recycling has increased by nearly 20% within the last decade or so, reaching a level of almost 72% in 2012. With increasing recycling rates, lower quality paper fractions may be included. This may potentially lead to accumulation or un-intended spreading of chemical substances contained in paper, e.g. by introducing chemicals contained in waste paper into the recycling loop. This study provides an overview of chemicals potentially present in paper and applies a sequential hazard screening procedure based on the intrinsic hazard, physical-chemical and biodegradability characteristics of the substances. Based on the results, 51 substances were identified as potentially critical (selected mineral oils, phthalates, phenols, parabens, as well as other groups of chemicals) in relation to paper recycling. It is recommended that these substances receive more attention in waste paper.

Keyword
Hazardous substances, Paper, Priority pollutants, Recycling, Waste management, Biodegradation, Biohazards, Chemical hazards, Chemicals, Hazards, Indicators (chemical), Waste paper, Chemical substance, Conversion process, Environmental initiatives, Paper and pulp production, Product manufacturing, Screening procedures
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-66648 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2015.02.028 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-07-05 Created: 2017-07-05 Last updated: 2017-11-10Bibliographically approved
Bollmann, U. E., Petersen, C. T., Eriksson, E., Jönsson, K., Vollertsen, J. & Bester, K. (2014). Biocides in urban wastewater treatment plant influent at dry and wet weather: concentrations, mass flows and possible sources. Water Research, 60, 64-74.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biocides in urban wastewater treatment plant influent at dry and wet weather: concentrations, mass flows and possible sources
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2014 (English)In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 60, 64-74 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent years, exterior thermal insulation systems became more and more important leading to an increasing amount of houses equipped with biocide-containing organic façade coatings or fungicide treated wood. It is known that these biocides, e.g. terbutryn, carbendazim, and diuron, as well as wood preservatives as propiconazole, leach out of the material through contact with wind driven rain. Hence, they are present in combined sewage during rain events in concentrations up to several hundred ng L(-1). The present study focused on the occurrence of these biocides in five wastewater treatment plants in Denmark and Sweden during dry and wet weather. It was discovered, that biocides are detectable not only during wet weather but also during dry weather when leaching from façade coatings can be excluded as source. In most cases, the concentrations during dry weather were in the same range as during wet weather (up to 100 ng L(-1)); however, for propiconazole noteworthy high concentrations were detected in one catchment (4.5 μg L(-1)). Time resolved sampling (12 × 2 h) enabled assessments about possible sources. The highest mass loads during wet weather were detected when the rain was heaviest (e.g. up to 116 mg h(-1) carbendazim or 73 mg h(-1) mecoprop) supporting the hypothesis that the biocides were washed off by wind driven rain. Contrary, the biocide emissions during dry weather were rather related to household activities than with emissions from buildings, i.e., emissions were highest during morning and evening hours (up to 50 mg h(-1)). Emissions during night were significantly lower than during daytime. Only for propiconazole a different emission behaviour during dry weather was observed: the mass load peaked in the late afternoon (3 g h(-1)) and declined slowly afterwards. Most likely this emission was caused by a point source, possibly from inappropriate cleaning of spray equipment for agriculture or gardening.

Keyword
Combined sewer, Diffuse pollution, Stormwater, Building façades, Dry weather sources
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-66649 (URN)10.1016/j.watres.2014.04.014 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-07-05 Created: 2017-07-05 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Davidsson, Å., Kjerstadius, H., Haghighatafshar, S., Fick, J., Olsson, M. E., Wachtmeister, H., . . . Ia Cour Jansen, J. (2014). Effect of anaerobic digestion at 35, 55 and 60 °C on pharmaceuticals and organic contaminants. Water Science and Technology, 69(6), 1282-1288.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of anaerobic digestion at 35, 55 and 60 °C on pharmaceuticals and organic contaminants
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2014 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 69, no 6, 1282-1288 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The application of treated sewage sludge on farmland is a suggested method for recycling nutrients and reducing demand for commercial fertilizer. However, sludge needs to be safe from possible contaminants which can cause acute and long-term health and environmental problems. Residual pharmaceuticals and organic contaminants are mentioned as emerging threats since wastewater treatment plants are not designed to degrade these substances. The aim of this study was to screen and evaluate the presence, and reduction, of pharmaceuticals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during anaerobic digestion of mixed primary and waste-activated sludge at 35, 55 and 60°C and during pasteurization at 70°C. The study showed the difficulty of analysing pharmaceutical compounds in low concentrations in the sludge matrix. No general reduction of these compounds was seen during treatment, but for individual substances some reduction occured. The PAHs were generally not reduced during digestion or pasteurization, but for three substances (indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (analysed together) and benzo[g,h,i]perylene) reduction (up to 60%) during digestion was seen. Digestion at 35 and 55°C resulted in about the same order of reduction of the three individual PAHs, which was higher than for digestion at 60°C.

Keyword
Environmental Engineering, Water Science and Technology, Anaerobic digestion, Organic contaminants, Pharmaceuticals, Sludge, Drug products, Pasteurization, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Sewage sludge, Commercial fertilizers, Environmental problems, Organic contaminant, Pharmaceutical compounds, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS), Waste activated sludges, Wastewater treatment plants, acenaphthylene, acetic acid ethyl ester, acetonitrile, ammonia, anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benz[a]anthracene, dibenz[a, h]anthracene, formic acid, nitrogen, organic compound, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, volatile fatty acid, zirconium, activated sludge, agricultural land, anoxic conditions, chemical pollutant, drug, fertilizer, nutrient cycling, organic pollutant, PAH, pyrene, recycling, sewage treatment, wastewater, article, drug industry, mass fragmentography, organic pollution, stirred reactor, waste water management, Anaerobiosis, Pharmaceutical Preparations, Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic, Sewage, Temperature, Waste Management, Water Pollutants, Chemical
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-66651 (URN)10.2166/wst.2014.016 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-07-05 Created: 2017-07-05 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Davidsson, Å., Eriksson, E. & Fick, J. (2013). Ozonation and Thermal Pre-Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge: Implications for Toxicity and Methane Potential. Journal of Residuals Science and Technology, 10(2), 85-91.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ozonation and Thermal Pre-Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge: Implications for Toxicity and Methane Potential
2013 (English)In: Journal of Residuals Science and Technology, ISSN 1544-8053, E-ISSN 2376-578X, Vol. 10, no 2, 85-91 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to determine effects on methane potential and overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 degrees C). In general both treatments produced increased methane potential. Thermal treatment resulted in higher chemical oxygen demand (COD)-solubilisation, while the highest volatile fatty acids (VFA) increase was obtained with ozonation. Sludges had inhibiting effects in a barley seed germination assay and a yeast oestrogen screen both before and after pre-treatment, but inhibition was reduced by ozone treatment and digestion. No statistical significant reduction in concentrations of included pharmaceuticals could be observed.

Keyword
Anaerobic digestion, Ozone pretreatment, Pharmaceuticals, Waste, Products, Removal
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-66659 (URN)
Available from: 2017-07-05 Created: 2017-07-05 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Lützhøft, H.-C. H., Donner, E., Wickman, T., Eriksson, E., Banovec, P., Mikkelsen, P. S. & Ledin, A. (2012). A source classification framework supporting pollutant source mapping, pollutant release prediction, transport and load forecasting, and source control planning for urban environments. Environmental science and pollution research international, 19(4), 1119-1130.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A source classification framework supporting pollutant source mapping, pollutant release prediction, transport and load forecasting, and source control planning for urban environments
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2012 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 19, no 4, 1119-1130 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

Implementation of current European environmental legislation such as the Water Framework Directive requires access to comprehensive, well-structured pollutant source and release inventories. The aim of this work was to develop a Source Classification Framework (SCF) ideally suited for this purpose.

Methods

Existing source classification systems were examined by a multidisciplinary research team, and an optimised SCF was developed. The performance and usability of the SCF were tested using a selection of 25 chemicals listed as priority pollutants in Europe.

Results

The SCF is structured in the form of a relational database and incorporates both qualitative and quantitative source classification and release data. The system supports a wide range of pollution monitoring and management applications. The SCF functioned well in the performance test, which also revealed important gaps in priority pollutant release data.

Conclusions

The SCF provides a well-structured approach for European pollutant source and release classification and management. With further optimisation and demonstration testing, the SCF has the potential to be fully implemented throughout Europe.

Keyword
Priority substances, Source classification, Stormwater, Urban pollution, Wastewater, Water Framework Directive
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-66666 (URN)10.1007/s11356-011-0627-9 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-07-05 Created: 2017-07-05 Last updated: 2017-11-15Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5472-8553

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