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Arjmand, R. & Mirsafa, M. (2019). Ephemeral space sanctification and trespassing gender boundaries in a Muslim city. Storia urbana, 161, 71-93
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ephemeral space sanctification and trespassing gender boundaries in a Muslim city
2019 (English)In: Storia urbana, ISSN 0391-2248, E-ISSN 1972-5523, Vol. 161, p. 71-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A distinct feature of Muslim cities is demarcated separation between zones of public economic and private domestic activities. Such spatial distinction has been the organic extension of a social structure with limited presence of women in public zones. However, separation of spaces in the Muslim city and the way it is utilized, shaped and reproduced by men and women is not a simple case of dividing public-­private geographies and assigning them to males and females, respectively, and has been subject to appropriations and adaptations. The Shiite traditional Muharram procession is one of the instances of such appropriation which produces a semi-­private or tertiary (social and spatial) realm, where gendered behaviours are more fluid, the loyalties of the kin stretch beyond the dominant normative, and both men and women move with greater ease. Such spatial fluidity exacerbated during the rituals of Muharram, where presence of women in public space is promoted and invigorated. Among other means, the ephemeral space sanctification is utilized to create a space where the social sanctions are temporarily lifted, and gender spatial boundaries are suspended. As an ethnographical piece of research using methods informed by urban planning and urban sociology and based on a cross-­disciplinary study of gendered spatial divisions (socially and architecturally), this article endeavours to investigate the notion of ephemeral space sanctification in a Muslim city among the Guilani population in Lahijan, in northern Iran.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Milan: Edizioni Franco Angeli, 2019
Keywords
Space sanctification, Gender boundaries, Muslim city, Lahijan, Iran, Space-­ making, Gendered spaces, Religious spaces
National Category
Social Anthropology
Research subject
Social Sciences, Gender Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89156 (URN)10.3280/SU2018-161005 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-09-16 Created: 2019-09-16 Last updated: 2019-09-26
Daun, H. & Arjmand, R. (Eds.). (2018). Handbook of Islamic Education (1ed.). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Handbook of Islamic Education
2018 (English)Collection (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This Handbook traces and presents the fundamentals of Islam and their history and background, and provides a global and holistic, yet, detailed picture of Islamic education around the world. It introduces the reader to the roots and foundations of Islamic education; the responses of Islamic educational institutions to different changes from precolonial times, through the colonial era up to the contemporary situation. It discusses interactions between the state, state-run education and Islamic education, and explores the Islamic educational arrangements existing around the world. The book provides in-depth descriptions and analyses, as well as country case studies representing some 25 countries.The work reflects the recent series of changes and events with respect to Islam and Muslims that have occurred during the past decades. The globalization of Islam as a religion and an ideology, the migration of Muslims into new areas of the globe, and the increasing contacts between Muslims and non-Muslims reinforce the need for mutual understanding. By presenting Islamic education around the world in a comprehensive work, this Handbook contributes to a deeper international understanding of its varieties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2018. p. 1020 Edition: 1
Series
International Handbooks of Religion and Education, ISSN 1874-0049, E-ISSN 1874-0057 ; 7
Keywords
Islamic Education
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences; Humanities, Study of Religions
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72920 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-53620-0 (DOI)978-3-319-53620-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
Arjmand, R. (2018). Ijāzah: Methods of Authorization and Assessment in Islamic Education (1ed.). In: Holger Daun & Reza Arjmand (Ed.), Handbook of Islamic Education: (pp. 135-156). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ijāzah: Methods of Authorization and Assessment in Islamic Education
2018 (English)In: Handbook of Islamic Education / [ed] Holger Daun & Reza Arjmand, Cham: Springer, 2018, 1, p. 135-156Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Ijāzah, meaning permission, license, or authorization, refers to several distinct types of academic certificates within Islamic education. Given the primacy of oral traditions and importance of reliability of ḥadīth, the license of audition (ijāzah al-sama‘) was established in order to guarantee the credibility of the transmission. Ijāzah al-riwāyah served as written records of the direct audition of a text on the part of the recipient from the transmitting authority, whether a single ḥadīth report, a work by the transmitting teacher himself, or a work by a third party. Accordingly, ijāzah al-iftā’ or ijāzah al-ijtihād was developed within fiqh as a method of authorization of the qualified ‘ulamā’ to respond to the changes within Muslim societies throughout fatwās. Through ijāzah li-al-tadrīs, a scholar was entitled to teach parts of a book or an entire subject. Independent from any social and political institutions, ijāzah was executed within a disciple-master relationship and developed into a literacy genre within Islamic education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2018 Edition: 1
Series
International Handbooks of Religion and Education, ISSN 1874-0049, E-ISSN 1874-0057 ; 7
Keywords
Islamic education; Ijāzah; Authorization; Educational assessment
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72924 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-53620-0_55-1 (DOI)978-3-319-53620-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
Arjmand, R. (2018). Introduction to part I: Islamic Education: Historical Perspective, Origin and Foundation (1ed.). In: Holger Daun, Reza Arjmand (Ed.), Handbook of Islamic Education: (pp. 3-32). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction to part I: Islamic Education: Historical Perspective, Origin and Foundation
2018 (English)In: Handbook of Islamic Education / [ed] Holger Daun, Reza Arjmand, Cham: Springer, 2018, 1, p. 3-32Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Whereas the concept of ‘ilm (knowledge) includes both religious as well as mundane knowledge, the traditional Islamic thought tends to identify the totality of and specify knowledge as religious knowledge. The typology of knowledge in Islam divides the entire human knowledge into two all-embracing categories: al-‘ulūm al-‘aqlīyah(rational/argumentative knowledge) and ‘al-ulūm al-naqlīyah (knowledge by transmission). This division conceptualizes the foundations of the Islamic epistemology and forms the educational arrangements in Islam. Four major approaches to education and knowledge acquisition include: (1) Constructive approach, which is using rules of logics and qiyās(analogical deductive reasoning) aims to attain human knowledge; (2) Theological approach which is based on kalām (dialectical theology) aims to decipher the divine knowledge as well as mundane one; (3) Philosophical approach which is inspired and informed by the Neo-Platonist movement and Peripatetic Islamic philosophy in which knowledge is attained through the process of wham (estimation) and using the active intelligence to achieve the unknowns through the known premises; and (4) Mystical/theosophical approach which argues on the notion of knowledge by presence. The mystical approach rests on the argument on the divine knowledge as the source of all knowledge and intuition as an instrument to achieve it. Such an epistemological principal has informed not only various approaches to the acquisition of knowledge but also institutions of education and learning. Although the social and political climate and the local cultures have significantly affected the development of the educational institutions across the Muslim world, a trifold model of the educational institutions prevail across the Muslim world. Madrasah as the final product of this development, however, is challenged by the waves of modernization and domination of western values across the Muslim world.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2018 Edition: 1
Series
International Handbooks of Religion and Education, ISSN 1874-0049 ; 7
Keywords
Islamic education; Knowledge; Islamic epistemology; Islamic philosophy; Kalām
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72927 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-53620-0_3-1 (DOI)978-3-319-64682-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-53620-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
Arjmand, R. (2018). Introduction to part II: Islam and Education in the Modern Era: Social, Cultural, Political and Economic Changes and the Responses from Islamic Education (1ed.). In: Holger Daun, Reza Arjmand (Ed.), Handbook of Islamic Education: (pp. 159-176). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction to part II: Islam and Education in the Modern Era: Social, Cultural, Political and Economic Changes and the Responses from Islamic Education
2018 (English)In: Handbook of Islamic Education / [ed] Holger Daun, Reza Arjmand, Cham: Springer, 2018, 1, p. 159-176Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Islamic education in the modern era has been at the crossroad of globalization, rapid economic development, social changes, and resurgence of rival religious ideologies. Islam as a global force has affected other forces and has affected by them, and along the way the Islamic education has changed to adapt to the realities of the modern world. Such adaptation is the reflection of the diversity across the Muslim world and heavily influenced by the domestic factors and on the other hand by the nature and extent of the linkage to other global forces. Despite the contextual variations and diversity changes within the Islamic education in the modern era have certain features in common: (a) affected by the new socioeconomic development and changes within the civil society; (b) affected by the realities of the modern state and governance; (c) influenced by the cultural (traditional/religious) factors and political climate; and (d) affected by the international factors. Despite the variations, Islamic education reform across the Muslim world has one thing in common: all have lost the grandeur and glory of the past, they are struggling to meet the demands of a competing world, and they exist in the margin of a strong formal education system.

There are endavors to synchrone traditional approaches and contents of the Islamic education with those of the formal education to inhibit or enhance the chance for the accreditation of the religious education across the Muslim world. This has partially resulted in internationalization of the institutions of Islamic education and tailoring the curricula to add new subjects such as foreign languages and natural sciences to accommodate the global discourse and attract new groups of students internationally.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2018 Edition: 1
Series
International Handbooks of Religion and Education, ISSN 1874-0049 ; 7
Keywords
Islam; Education reform; Globalization; Islamic education; Muslim civil society
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72928 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-53620-0_12-1 (DOI)978-3-319-64682-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-53620-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
Mandry, A. & Arjmand, R. (2018). Islam and Democracy in Muslim Educational Settings (1ed.). In: Holger Daun, Reza Arjmand (Ed.), Handbook of Islamic Education: (pp. 289-310). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Islam and Democracy in Muslim Educational Settings
2018 (English)In: Handbook of Islamic Education / [ed] Holger Daun, Reza Arjmand, Cham: Springer, 2018, 1, p. 289-310Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter seeks to explore the relationship between education and democracy in Muslim educational settings. The chapter will examine existing scholarship on Islam, democracy, and education with first, an overview of concepts and definitions and second, a review of educational systems regarding democracy and religion in selected Muslim-majority nations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2018 Edition: 1
Series
International Handbooks of Religion and Education, ISSN 1874-0049 ; 7
Keywords
Islam; Democracy; Human rights education; Muslims
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72929 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-53620-0_15-1 (DOI)978-3-319-64682-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-53620-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
Daun, H. & Arjmand, R. (2018). Islam, Globalizations, and Education (1ed.). In: Holger Daun, Reza Arjmand (Ed.), Handbook of Islamic Education: (pp. 333-356). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Islam, Globalizations, and Education
2018 (English)In: Handbook of Islamic Education / [ed] Holger Daun, Reza Arjmand, Cham: Springer, 2018, 1, p. 333-356Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There are different types of globalization, and hence this chapter uses the plural form of the term. Two principal types of globalization relevant to this chapter are Islamic globalization and Western globalization each with its variety of forces. The Islamic globalization includes features such as the extension of ummah, the spread of Islamic messages via ICT and migration. The Western globalization carries various forces such as market principles and neo-liberalism, human rights, and universal educational models.

Today, Muslims are in a majority or form important minorities of the population in some forty countries; conversion to Islam takes place in many places in the world. In fact, Islam and certain branches within Protestantism have been the most expansive – in terms of new adherents – during the past two decades. At least nonformal Islamic educational institutions exist practically everywhere on the globe. Where minorities of Muslims have settled as immigrants, there also tends to be Qur’ānic educational activities.

Among Muslims, there are different views of what globalizations are, and one may distinguish the followings: (a) Islam as threatened by globalization; (b) Islam as marginalized from globalization; (c) Islam itself as a globalizing force; and (d) Islam as a potential globalizing force. Muslim educational perspectives tend to correspond to one or several of these four views.

From the Western perspective, globalization has resulted in intensive encounters between and mutal penetration of world religions, such as Islam and Christianity, that more than ever before compete and challenge one another. The relativization implicit in or resulting from globalization threatens the Muslim way of life and makes Muslims defend their values and belief systems.

Educational world models are propagated by international organizations such as the World Bank, UNESCO, OECD, and others and tend to make it necessary for Islamic educational arrangements to adapt or go through revitalization.

This chapter makes an overview of the different globalizing forces as a context to the changes that take place in Western type as well as Islamic education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2018 Edition: 1
Series
International Handbooks of Religion and Education, ISSN 1874-0049 ; 7
Keywords
Islamic Education; Islam; Education reforms; Muslims; Globalisation
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72922 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-53620-0_23-1 (DOI)978-3-319-64682-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
Arjmand, R. (2018). Islamic Education in Egypt. In: Holger Daun, Reza Arjmand (Ed.), Handbook of Islamic Education: (pp. 577-592). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Islamic Education in Egypt
2018 (English)In: Handbook of Islamic Education / [ed] Holger Daun, Reza Arjmand, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 577-592Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Islamic education in Egypt thrived during the seventh to tenth centuries when Islamic schools established both as primary kuttāb and subsequently advanced to al-Azhar system. Kuttāb as educational institutions emerged as natural, spontaneous at grassroots level, often connected with a mosque, but also created by the community in a home, a shop, a tent, or under a palm tree. Islamic education was built around an individual rather than an institution, and this helped the spread of education in the Muslim world. While al-Azhar built by Ismā’ilī Shī’ite Fāṭimīds in Egypt to confront the hostile 'Abbāsīds of Baghdad, it ultimately held strong religious and political directions based on Sunnī Islam. Al-Azhar with its vast endowed residential facilities fostered training of generations of learned class of 'ulamā'. Female students had access to education where a series of facilities and classes were devoted to them.

Driven from Islamic dogma, the al-Azhar developed the curriculum based on theology, grammar, and rhetoric through memorization, with the intention to foster a sense of religious obedience among students and to reinforce teachings of Sunnī Islam. The educational target is to achieve independent judgment on various issues concerning the Muslim society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2018
Series
International Handbooks of Religion and Education, ISSN 1874-0049 ; 7
Keywords
Egypt, Islamic education, Al-Azhar, Fāṭimīd, Mamlūk, Kuttāb, 'Ulamā', Mosque
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72932 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-53620-0_35-1 (DOI)978-3-319-64682-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
Arjmand, R. (2018). Islamic Education in Iran (1ed.). In: Holger Daun, Reza Arjmand (Ed.), Handbook of Islamic Education: (pp. 555-576). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Islamic Education in Iran
2018 (English)In: Handbook of Islamic Education / [ed] Holger Daun, Reza Arjmand, Cham: Springer, 2018, 1, p. 555-576Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With the arrival of Islam in the seventh century, Iran developed as the center for Shī‘ite education, and Iranians contributed significantly to the institutionalization and expansion of Islamic education both in form and content. For centuries, clergies were regarded as the custodians of education running preprimary and primary education in maktabs; postprimary and higher education were carried out and institutionalized in madrasahs.

Iranian madrasah played also a significant role in promoting knowledge and sciences, both religious and nonreligious. With the establishment of Qom theological seminary (ḥawzah ‘ilmīyah Qom), however, Islamic education and its respective institutions (madrasahs) revitalized and started a new era and played a pivotal role in the formation of the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Operating under the institution of waqf and other forms of religious taxes, ḥawzah ‘ilmīyah today is a network of madrasahs and other educational institutions, active both through traditional methods and in the virtual world to foster the Shī‘ite communities worldwide.

The Iranian Revolution of 1979 is considered as one of the instances in running a modern society based on Islam and contributed significantly to the revival of religious ideologies across the world. Iranian theocratic government planned a shift from a Western model of social order and education to a one deeply rooted in Islamic beliefs and values. To achieve the goal to intellectually nurture generations of committed Muslims as the human capital of Muslim ummah, among other measures, a larger proportion of the formal curricula is devoted to education of Islam, while religious education also occupied a significant status both in curricular and extracurricular activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2018 Edition: 1
Series
International Handbooks of Religion and Education, ISSN 1874-0049 ; 7
Keywords
Shī‘ism; Iran; Ḥawzah ‘ilmīyah; Maktab; Madrasah; Islamic education
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72930 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-53620-0_40-1 (DOI)978-3-319-64682-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-53620-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
Arjmand, R., Mirsafa, M. & Talebi, Z. (2018). Islamic Educational Spaces: Architecture of Madrasah and Muslim Educational Institutions (1ed.). In: Holger Daun & Reza Arjmand (Ed.), Handbook of Islamic Education: (pp. 469-510). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Islamic Educational Spaces: Architecture of Madrasah and Muslim Educational Institutions
2018 (English)In: Handbook of Islamic Education / [ed] Holger Daun & Reza Arjmand, Cham: Springer, 2018, 1, p. 469-510Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The mosque (both as masjid or jami’) is recognized as the first Muslim educational space for formal and informal learnings, for children and adult alike. Although the mosque remained as one of the primary centers of Islamic studies in various disciplines to this day, the Muslim cities from the Middle Ages onward have witnessed the emergence of specific institutions for Islamic education. Kuttābs or maktabs were primary education institutions often small scale but, in some instances, housed in a specific building consisted of a large, domed, unadorned hall in which all the pupils sat cross-legged on mattresses in a rough semicircle, usually next to low desks. Such buildings were generally erected by philanthropists and informed by the traditional architecture in form and structure. The first turn in formation of a specific Islamic higher education space was the majid-khan complex in which hujrahs (dormitories) and madras (study spaces) were built adjacent to the mosques. Madrasah buildings were formed in eastern lands of the Muslim World inspired by Khurāsāni vernecular architecture. With the selection of Isfahan as the capital of Ṣafavīd in 1722, the city was labeled Dār al-‘Ilm (The House of Knowledge) and reached fame in the Islamic world for its educational institutions. Among other achievements, Isfahan is credited for the innovation and design of an Islamic educational space. Isfahani architects utilized classic Persian architecture with its internal garden, formerly used extensively in Persian style mosques, to madrasah buildings. The model spread later to most of the Muslim world as the classic model of madrasah building.

The design of the madrasahs like any other architectural structure of the Islamic world was informed by Islamic rules and principles and reflects the social, political, and economic values of the Muslim society. Despite the diversity of the architectural typologies among various Islamic societies, such principles have resulted in formation of common spatial qualities in Islamic educational spaces.

This chapter provides a cross-disciplinary review of the architectural foundations of the Islamic institutions of education. Through a review of various models of madrasaharchitecture in different historical eras, the chapter provides an account on the development, taxonomy, and common characteristics of Islamic educational spaces in various parts of the Muslim world.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2018 Edition: 1
Series
International Handbooks of Religion and Education, ISSN 1874-0049, E-ISSN 1874-0057 ; 7
Keywords
Islamic education
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72921 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-53620-0_54-1 (DOI)978-3-319-64682-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-53620-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5432-8883

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