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Lemaitre, R., Bocquet, J.-F., Schweigler, M. & Bader, T. K. (2019). Beam-on-Foundation Modelling as an Alternative Design Method for Timber Joints with Dowel-Type Fasteners: Part 2: Modelling Techniques for Multiple Fastener Connections. In: INTER: International Network on Timber Engineering Research: Proceedings, Meeting 52, 26-29 August 2019, Tacoma, USA. Paper presented at 6th meeting of INTER (International Network on Timber Engineering Research), Tacoma, USA, August 26-29, 2019. Karlsruhe, Germany: Timber Scientific Publishing, KIT Holzbau und Baukonstruktionen, Article ID 52-7-9.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beam-on-Foundation Modelling as an Alternative Design Method for Timber Joints with Dowel-Type Fasteners: Part 2: Modelling Techniques for Multiple Fastener Connections
2019 (English)In: INTER: International Network on Timber Engineering Research: Proceedings, Meeting 52, 26-29 August 2019, Tacoma, USA, Karlsruhe, Germany: Timber Scientific Publishing, KIT Holzbau und Baukonstruktionen , 2019, article id 52-7-9Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In many design codes for timber structures (e.g. Eurocode 5 and SIA 265), the stiffness of a connection is given by empirical equations for a single dowel-type fastener per shear plane. The global stiffness of the connection is then given by multiplication with the number of dowels and shear planes. In the codes cited above, the empirical equations to estimate stiffness only depend on two parameters, namely the dowel diameter and the wood density. The main difference between different codes and stiffness of different types of fasteners is the choice of the exponent on these two parameters. Development and background of empirical equations for stiffness in different codes were recently reported in Jockwer and Jorissen (2018), who analysed about one thousand double shear timber-to-timber connection tests to evaluate the influence of further parameters on stiffness, such as number of fasteners in a row, number of rows of fasteners and dowel slenderness. From this huge database, they have been able to estimate another empirical stiffness equation, that includes dowel slenderness as an additional parameter. Effects of the latter have even been reported in Lemaître et al. (2018), by using a phenomenological numerical model instead ofexperiments. Sandhaas and van de Kuilen (2017) reported that using the slip modulus Kser, calculated according to Eurocode 5 for stiffness prediction of multiple fastener joints, considerably overestimates the experimentally observed stiffness and they proposed to introduce an effective number of dowels in their design, which was also recommended in Jockwer and Jorissen (2018).

This paper continues the work presented in Lemaître et al. (2018) on strength and stiffness estimations of single-fastener connections using a beam-on-foundation (BOF) modelling. In Lemaître et al (2018), the beam-on-foundation model calculations were compared to design equations of Eurocode 5, i.e. the load-carrying capacity and slip modulus. By these comparisons, the validity of the method for the design of single-fastener connections was highlighted. Moreover, effects that are not explicitly covered in the empirical design equations, namely the influence of the dowel slenderness and the nonlinear dowel diameter on the slip modulus were demonstrated.

In the present paper, the same comparisons are made for multiple dowelled connections. Moreover, load distribution between dowels in this type of connection, which was shown to be non-uniform by Blass (1995), is studied by means of the BOF model. Different approaches to estimate the load distribution have been proposed by Cramer (1968), Lantos (1969) and Wilkinson (1986).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlsruhe, Germany: Timber Scientific Publishing, KIT Holzbau und Baukonstruktionen, 2019
Keywords
Dowelled timber connections, Numerical modelling, Beam-on-foundation
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89340 (URN)
Conference
6th meeting of INTER (International Network on Timber Engineering Research), Tacoma, USA, August 26-29, 2019
Available from: 2019-09-29 Created: 2019-09-29 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
Schweigler, M. (2019). Database of embedment parameters from soft- and hardwoods. Växjö, Sweden: Linnaeus University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Database of embedment parameters from soft- and hardwoods
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2019 (English)Data set, Aggregated data
Place, publisher, year
Växjö, Sweden: Linnaeus University, 2019
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-87945 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-30 Created: 2019-09-30 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
Schweigler, M., Bader, T. K., Bocquet, J.-F., Lemaitre, R. & Sandhaas, C. (2019). Embedment test analysis and data in the context of phenomenological modeling for dowelled timber joint design. In: INTER: International Network on Timber Engineering Research: Proceedings, Meeting 52, 26-29 August 2019, Tacoma, USA. Paper presented at 6th meeting of INTER (International Network on Timber Engineering Research), Tacoma, USA, August 26-29, 2019. Karlsruhe, Germany: Timber Scientific Publishing, KIT Holzbau und Baukonstruktionen, Article ID 52-7-8.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Embedment test analysis and data in the context of phenomenological modeling for dowelled timber joint design
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2019 (English)In: INTER: International Network on Timber Engineering Research: Proceedings, Meeting 52, 26-29 August 2019, Tacoma, USA, Karlsruhe, Germany: Timber Scientific Publishing, KIT Holzbau und Baukonstruktionen , 2019, article id 52-7-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Numerical models, like the phenomenological Beam-On-Foundation (BOF) approach, have proven to be an efficient alternative to the analytical European Yield Model (EYM) for the design of dowelled timber joints according to EN 1995-1-1 (2004) (EC 5) (see e.g. Lemaître et al. (2018), Bader et al. (2016)). In contrast to the EYM, BOF-models allow not only for prediction of the load-carrying capacity, but also for prediction of the load-displacement behavior of single-dowel connections, and thus of their stiffness. This makes BOF-models predestined for the design of joints in advanced modern timber structures, which for reason of their complexity rely on a reliable prediction of the jointload-deformation behavior.

BOF-models are used since the early thirties of the last century (Hager, 1930). Models of different complexity were used from simplified (i) rigid-ideal plastic models, which allow only for strength prediction (cf. Johansen (1949)); to (ii) bi-linear elastic approaches, being able to predict stiffness and strength (Sawata and Yasumura (2003), Cachim and Franssen (2009)), and (iii) nonlinear elastic models, which are optimized for numerical simulations (Lemaître et al., 2018). BOF-models might be even used for earthquake design by application of plastic, or even hysteresis models (Izzi et al. (2018), Girhammar et al. (2017)). Developers and users of such phenomenological models face the challenge to find reliable input data on the load-deformation behavior of steel dowels embedded in wood or wood-based products.

Lack of input data for numerical models, like BOF, is one of the main reasons which hinders application of such models in engineering practice and in research. Since the EYM of EC 5 uses only the embedment strength (fh,EC5) but no stiffness, as input, the related European standard for embedment testing, EN 383 (2007), focuses mainly on the embedment strength determination. However, numerical modeling requires information on the entire load-displacement curve from embedment tests.The aim of this contribution is to

  1. present methods to analyze and parameterize experimental load-displacement curves for BOF-models, with embedment parameters suitable for this purpose;
  2. provide a database of embedment parameters for different wood spieces and wood products, and try to find correlations between parameters;
  3. give recommendations for embedment testing, with the aim to exploit data in numerical models.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlsruhe, Germany: Timber Scientific Publishing, KIT Holzbau und Baukonstruktionen, 2019
Keywords
Dowelled timber joints, Embedment tests, Load-displacement curves, Numerical analysis, Database
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89339 (URN)
Conference
6th meeting of INTER (International Network on Timber Engineering Research), Tacoma, USA, August 26-29, 2019
Available from: 2019-09-29 Created: 2019-09-29 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
Schweigler, M. & Bader, T. K. (2019). Numerical modeling of dowel-type connections in soft- and hardwoods including the rope effect. In: CompWood 2019 - International Conference on Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics - from Material Properties to Timber Structures: . Paper presented at CompWood 2019 - International Conference on Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics - from Material Properties to Timber Structures, 17-19 June, 2019, Växjö (pp. 10-10). Växjö, Sweden: Lnu Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical modeling of dowel-type connections in soft- and hardwoods including the rope effect
2019 (English)In: CompWood 2019 - International Conference on Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics - from Material Properties to Timber Structures, Växjö, Sweden: Lnu Press , 2019, p. 10-10Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In laterally loaded dowel-type connections, forces are not only transferred perpendicular to the fastener axis via contact forces (so-called embedment forces) and shear forces in the fastener, but also by means of forces evoked by displacement along the fastener axis and frictional forces within shear planes. The latter load transfer, the so-called rope effect, is often neglected or simplified in numerical models for laterally loaded connections, but considerably increases strength in case of large bending deformations of the fastener. In partially threaded screws, the rope effect is a result of the withdrawal behavior of the threaded part in combination with the axial resistance of the head of the fasteners. The tensile force along the axis of the fastener causes compression between connected members and frictional forces within the shear planes of the connection, which increase the load bearing capacity [1]. Consideration of the rope effect in numerical models is decisive for valid and suitable prediction of the load-deformation behavior and discussed in this presentation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö, Sweden: Lnu Press, 2019
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89768 (URN)978-91-88898-64-7 (ISBN)
Conference
CompWood 2019 - International Conference on Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics - from Material Properties to Timber Structures, 17-19 June, 2019, Växjö
Available from: 2019-10-22 Created: 2019-10-22 Last updated: 2019-11-12Bibliographically approved
Lemaitre, R., Bocquet, J.-F., Schweigler, M. & Bader, T. K. (2018). Beam-on-foundation modelling as an alternative design method for single fastener connections. In: Carmen Sandhaas, Jorgen Munch-Andersen, Philipp Dietsch (Ed.), Design of Connections in Timber Structures: A state-of-the-art report by COST Action FP1402/WG3 (pp. 207-220). Aachen: Shaker Verlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beam-on-foundation modelling as an alternative design method for single fastener connections
2018 (English)In: Design of Connections in Timber Structures: A state-of-the-art report by COST Action FP1402/WG3 / [ed] Carmen Sandhaas, Jorgen Munch-Andersen, Philipp Dietsch, Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2018, p. 207-220Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2018
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77871 (URN)978-3-8440-6144-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-09-19 Created: 2018-09-19 Last updated: 2018-10-04Bibliographically approved
Lemaitre, R., Bocquet, J.-F., Schweigler, M. & Bader, T. K. (2018). Beam-on-foundation modelling as an alternative design method for timber joints with dowel-type fasteners: Part 1: Strength and stiffness per shear plane of single-fastener joints.. In: 5th INTER Proceedings, 2018: International Network on Timber Engineering Research 2018. Paper presented at 5th INTER Meeting, 13-16 August, 2018, Tallin. Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Article ID 51-7-13.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beam-on-foundation modelling as an alternative design method for timber joints with dowel-type fasteners: Part 1: Strength and stiffness per shear plane of single-fastener joints.
2018 (English)In: 5th INTER Proceedings, 2018: International Network on Timber Engineering Research 2018, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie , 2018, article id 51-7-13Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Optimised manufacturing processes made possible the production of larger dimensions timber products, which allow for the design of remarkable structures. In the last version of the EN 1995-1-1, it seemed important to its drafters to propose design formulas to estimate stiffness of joints in accordance with the needs of that time. Aware of the technical jump that had to be managed, the proposed rules remained simple. However, simple design equations became insufficient to cope with present-day challenges, which are, e.g., related to the design of high-rise wooden buildings. In EN 1995-1-1, the resistant capacity of dowel-type timber joints is no longer determined by empirical formulas but it is based on the limit analysis proposed by Johansen (1949). This methodology however shows limits for complex joints even though many improvements have been made since its introduction (Blaß and Laskewitz 2000). In parallel with these analytical approaches, developments in computational mechanics made it possible to develop simple numerical methods (Foschi 1974, Hirai 1983), which taken even into account nonlinear phenomena. These approaches have remained unused in practical design due to their complex implementation and their high running time, at the time of their invention, while todays computational resources strongly reduced corresponding limitations. Thus, numerical modelling of connections can help engineers to fill the gaps of the EN 1995-1-1 and to cope with variability in connection design. For this purpose, dowel-type fasteners are numerically modelled as elastoplastic beams on a nonlinear foundation in engineered in wood-based products (Sawata and Yasumura 2003, Hochreiner et al. 2013). This method is called Beam-On-Foundation (BOF) modelling and shows huge potential for engineering design. The purpose of this paper is to show how this method can substitute and complement limit analysis and empirical stiffness formulas of timber joints with dowel-type fasteners.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, 2018
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77867 (URN)
Conference
5th INTER Meeting, 13-16 August, 2018, Tallin
Available from: 2018-09-19 Created: 2018-09-19 Last updated: 2018-10-04Bibliographically approved
Schweigler, M. & Sandhaas, C. (2018). Database and paramterization of embedment slip curves. In: Carmen Sandhaas, Jorgen Munch-Andersen, Philipp Dietsch (Ed.), Design of Connections in Timber Structures: A state-of-art report by COST Action FP1402/WG3 (pp. 87-93). Aachen: Shaker Verlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Database and paramterization of embedment slip curves
2018 (English)In: Design of Connections in Timber Structures: A state-of-art report by COST Action FP1402/WG3 / [ed] Carmen Sandhaas, Jorgen Munch-Andersen, Philipp Dietsch, Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2018, p. 87-93Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2018
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77868 (URN)978-3-8440-6144-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-09-19 Created: 2018-09-19 Last updated: 2018-10-04Bibliographically approved
Schweigler, M., Bader, T. K. & Hochreiner, G. (2018). Engineering modeling of semi-rigid joints with dowel-type fasteners for nonlinear analysis of timber structures. Engineering structures, 171, 123-139
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Engineering modeling of semi-rigid joints with dowel-type fasteners for nonlinear analysis of timber structures
2018 (English)In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 171, p. 123-139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plastic analysis in engineered structures requires ductility of structural components, which in timber structures is primarily provided by joints made of dowel-type fasteners. A prerequisite for nonlinear analysis is realistic modeling of joint stiffness and load distribution in dowel-type joints. A joint model suitable for structural analysis is presented and validated in this contribution. The semi-analytical joint model is based on kinematic compatibility and equilibrium considerations. It accounts for local fastener slip by means of nonlinear elastic springs. Influences of nonlinearity and orientation dependence of fastener slip are assessed. Elastic deformations of the timber in between dowels are however neglected. The model allows for predicting global joint stiffness, as well as load distribution within the joint, taking explicitly the effect of simultaneously acting internal forces into account. Model validation builds upon an experimental database that spans from embedment testing on the material scale up to joint testing on the structural scale. Application examples demonstrate the broad applic- ability of the model for structural analysis. Moreover, they illustrate effects of assumptions of fastener slip on the joint and structural behavior. Limitations, as well as pros and cons of these assumptions are discussed. Special attention is drawn to load distribution within the joint, since it is important for fastener-based design, currently prescribed by the European design standard. Load distribution in joints is also important for verification against brittle failure modes. As an alternative to fastener-based design, joint-based design, by means of a framework for applying the presented model to plastic design of timber structures with ductile joints, is proposed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Building Technologies Wood Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-76149 (URN)10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.05.063 (DOI)000443787000012 ()2-s2.0-85054311927 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-19 Created: 2018-06-19 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Schweigler, M. (2018). Nonlinear modeling of reinforced dowel joints in timber structures: a combined experimental-numerical study. (Doctoral dissertation). Vienna: Vienna University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nonlinear modeling of reinforced dowel joints in timber structures: a combined experimental-numerical study
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Alternative title[de]
Nichtlineare Modellierung von querzugverstärkten Stabdübelverbindungen in Holzkonstruktionen - eine kombiniert experimentell-numerische Studie
Abstract [en]

Steel dowels are indispensable elements for the design of joints in modern timber structures. Dowels are broadly used because of their flexibility in design and easy assembling on-site, as well as due to their advantageous mechanical behavior. Recent developments in reinforcement techniques allow for designing ductile dowel joints, which exhibit nonlinear slip behavior. However, currently applied limit state approaches for calculation of connection strength are not able to fully exploit the potential of dowel joints. This calls for development of more advanced calculation methods, which was aimed for in this thesis.

For thorough understanding of the complex mechanical behavior of dowel connections, application of a so-called multiscale approach is advantageous. Thereby, nonlinear loaddeformation behavior of dowel connections is studied on different length scales, from the scale of connection components, up to the joint level. The aim of this thesis was to exploit knowledge from lower scales in models that finally allow for nonlinear analysis of timber structures. In the work at hand, this was achieved by a combined experimental-numerical analysis.

Experimental studies on the nonlinear embedment slip of ductile dowel connections, and its relation to the orthotropic material behavior of wood, was one of the objectives of this work. Breaking new ground by testing up to large dowel displacements, at various angles to the grain, for unconstrained and constrained lateral displacement conditions, required development of new testing procedures and test setups. Test results gave access to nonlinear embedment slip curves and showed their dependence on loading direction and lateral displacement conditions.

In the next step, embedment slip data were exploited in modeling of single-dowel connections. Beam-on-nonlinear foundation modeling was applied for this purpose. Validation of connection tests and a parameter study not only highlighted suitability of the calculation method, but allowed for gaining insight into limit states. Thus, beam-on-foundation modeling was found to be an attractive alternative to advanced 3D FEM models for engineering design.

Parameterized equations for regression analysis of nonlinear slip curves, and interaction curves describing the grain angle dependence of mechanical parameters, were summarized in a literature review. With these equations at hand, a multi-dimensional parameterization method for the nonlinear slip as a function of the load-to-grain angle was developed. This method was applied to experimental data derived in embedment and single-dowel connection tests as well as in simulations. Analytical equations for connection slip are expected to facilitate engineering modeling at the single-dowel connection and joint level, respectively.

Joint modeling aimed at establishing a calculation method suitable for engineering design with an attractive trade-off between modeling effort, calculation time and accuracy. This was tackled by a semi-analytical model based on nonlinear elastic springs for the dowel slip and rigid connection members. Thereby, global joint slip, and thus stiffness and strength of joints, as well as local load distribution within joints can be predicted. This model proved to be suitable for single-dowel-based and joint-based design concepts. Calculation examples showed pronounced influence of loading direction dependence and nonlinearity of dowel slip on local load distribution, as well as on global joint slip. Influence of interaction between internal forces on the joint stiffness became obvious from structural analysis with nonlinear joint slip.

This work covers a combined experimental-numerical analysis of the slip behavior of ductile dowel joints, from the wood embedment and steel dowel bending behavior, the single-dowel slip, to the joint behavior, with final application in nonlinear structural analysis. Presented models predicted nonlinear slip with suitable accuracy and efficiency. Application of nonlinear joint slip in structural analysis showed the potential of ductile dowel joints, which could be exploited in engineering design by the herein presented multiscale modeling strategy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Vienna: Vienna University of Technology, 2018. p. 165
National Category
Wood Science Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering); Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering; Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-73293 (URN)
Public defence
2018-01-24, HS 12, Karlsplatz 13, Vienna, 12:50 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-04-25 Created: 2018-04-23 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Bader, T. K., Bocquet, J.-F., Schweigler, M. & Lemaitre, R. (2018). Numerical modeling of the load distribution in multiple fastener connections. In: Carmen Sandhaas, Jorgen Munch-Andersen, Philipp Dietsch (Ed.), Design of Connections in Timber Structures: A state-of-the-art report by COST Action FP1402/WG3 (pp. 221-239). Aachen: Shaker Verlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical modeling of the load distribution in multiple fastener connections
2018 (English)In: Design of Connections in Timber Structures: A state-of-the-art report by COST Action FP1402/WG3 / [ed] Carmen Sandhaas, Jorgen Munch-Andersen, Philipp Dietsch, Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2018, p. 221-239Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2018
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77872 (URN)978-3-8440-6144-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-09-19 Created: 2018-09-19 Last updated: 2018-10-04Bibliographically approved
Projects
Hardwood_joint: Innovative joints in hardwoods [2018-04980]; Linnaeus University; Publications
Lemaitre, R., Bocquet, J.-F., Schweigler, M. & Bader, T. K. (2019). Beam-on-Foundation Modelling as an Alternative Design Method for Timber Joints with Dowel-Type Fasteners: Part 2: Modelling Techniques for Multiple Fastener Connections. In: INTER: International Network on Timber Engineering Research: Proceedings, Meeting 52, 26-29 August 2019, Tacoma, USA. Paper presented at 6th meeting of INTER (International Network on Timber Engineering Research), Tacoma, USA, August 26-29, 2019. Karlsruhe, Germany: Timber Scientific Publishing, KIT Holzbau und Baukonstruktionen, Article ID 52-7-9. Schweigler, M., Bader, T. K., Bocquet, J.-F., Lemaitre, R. & Sandhaas, C. (2019). Embedment test analysis and data in the context of phenomenological modeling for dowelled timber joint design. In: INTER: International Network on Timber Engineering Research: Proceedings, Meeting 52, 26-29 August 2019, Tacoma, USA. Paper presented at 6th meeting of INTER (International Network on Timber Engineering Research), Tacoma, USA, August 26-29, 2019. Karlsruhe, Germany: Timber Scientific Publishing, KIT Holzbau und Baukonstruktionen, Article ID 52-7-8. Schweigler, M. & Bader, T. K. (2019). Numerical modeling of dowel-type connections in soft- and hardwoods including the rope effect. In: CompWood 2019 - International Conference on Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics - from Material Properties to Timber Structures: . Paper presented at CompWood 2019 - International Conference on Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics - from Material Properties to Timber Structures, 17-19 June, 2019, Växjö (pp. 10-10). Växjö, Sweden: Lnu Press
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7203-5948

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