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Publications (3 of 3) Show all publications
Marcussen, E. (2018). Cooperation and Pacifism in a Colonial Context: Service Civil International and Work Camps in Bihar, 1934-1937. In: Rafael Klöber, Manju Ludwig (Ed.), HerStory – Historical Scholarship between South Asia and Europe: Festschrift in Honour of Gita Dharampal-Frick (pp. 83-102). Heidelberg, Berlin: CrossAsia-eBooks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperation and Pacifism in a Colonial Context: Service Civil International and Work Camps in Bihar, 1934-1937
2018 (English)In: HerStory – Historical Scholarship between South Asia and Europe: Festschrift in Honour of Gita Dharampal-Frick / [ed] Rafael Klöber, Manju Ludwig, Heidelberg, Berlin: CrossAsia-eBooks , 2018, p. 83-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

After a major earthquake in Bihar and Nepal in 1934, the Swiss peace and relief organisation Service Civil International (SCI), would for the first time set up work camps in India. This chapter examines how the work camps in Bihar materialized through an exchange of ideas, networks, and cooperation in Europe and India. While several factors conspired to elicit the idea of reconstruction camps in Bihar at that particular time, SCI would for the practical implementation of the project depend on the support of a network of people that included Indian politicians, British Quakers and members of the Indian Conciliation Group. The thoughts and agency of SCI’s founder, Pierre Ceresole serve not only as a window into the life of an internationalist and pacifist of the time, but also illustrate the importance of political networks and ideological motivation in the internationalisation of disaster relief in the 1930s. In this context, the chapter discusses the organisation and motivation behind setting up work camps in India.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Heidelberg, Berlin: CrossAsia-eBooks, 2018
Keywords
Pacifism, inter-war history, 1930s, internationalism, India, global history, conscientious objectors, Service Civil International, Switzerland, Quakers
National Category
History
Research subject
Humanities, History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77429 (URN)978-3-946742-43-2 (ISBN)978-3-946742-44-9 (ISBN)
Projects
Of the Pacifist International: Methods for Peace and Humanitarian Thought in the Work of Pierre Ceresole and Service Civil International, 1918-1945
Available from: 2018-08-28 Created: 2018-08-28 Last updated: 2018-12-05Bibliographically approved
Marcussen, E. (2017). Explaining the 1934 Bihar-Nepal Earthquake: The Role of Science, Astrology, and “Rumours”. In: Gerrit Jasper Schenk (Ed.), Historical Disaster Experiences: Towards a Comparative and Transcultural History of Disasters Across Asia and Europe (pp. 241-266). Heidelberg: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Explaining the 1934 Bihar-Nepal Earthquake: The Role of Science, Astrology, and “Rumours”
2017 (English)In: Historical Disaster Experiences: Towards a Comparative and Transcultural History of Disasters Across Asia and Europe / [ed] Gerrit Jasper Schenk, Heidelberg: Springer, 2017, p. 241-266Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A major earthquake hit Bihar, in the northern parts of India and Nepal, on 15 January 1934. Besides causing major destruction and death, the earthquake triggered scientific discussions and popular interpretations on the causes of earthquakes. By looking at the confluence of interpretations and explanations found in “science” and “pseudo-science”, and those found in astrology and popular interpretations circulated in rumours, this article discusses the role of expert and popular discourses in interpreting a natural disaster.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Heidelberg: Springer, 2017
Series
Transcultural Research – Heidelberg Studies on Asia and Europe in a Global Context, ISSN 2191-656X
Keywords
Historical Disaster Research
National Category
History
Research subject
Humanities, History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-75094 (URN)978-3-319-49162-2 (ISBN)978-3-319-49163-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-05 Created: 2018-06-05 Last updated: 2018-06-15Bibliographically approved
Marcussen, E. (2017). Town Planning after the 1934 Bihar-Nepal Earthquake: Earthquake-safety, colonial improvements and the restructuring of urban space in Bihar. Studies in Nepali History and Society, 22(2), 321-354
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Town Planning after the 1934 Bihar-Nepal Earthquake: Earthquake-safety, colonial improvements and the restructuring of urban space in Bihar
2017 (English)In: Studies in Nepali History and Society, ISSN 1025-5109, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 321-354Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article addresses urban reconstruction in Bihar after the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake by arguing that the aftermath became an opportunity for the local government to implement town planning according to ideas of urban improvements guiding sanitation, engineering and control of spaces since the late nineteenth century in colonial India. While earthquake safety surfaced as a central aim of town planning, the local government used the reconstruction phase to improve sanitation facilities, widen roads and restructure plots in bazaars of the three worst affected towns—Monghyr, Darbhanga and Muzaffarpur. Arguably, sanitation engineering with more spaced and simpler structures in effect meant buildings less likely to kill people in future earthquakes. Congestion and overpopulation were blamed for the many deaths in the bazaars but the same factors were also seen as the major cause of “insanitary” conditions according to town planners and the government officials incharge of the planning process. Wider roads and lanes, and more sparsely populated areas and lower houses were measures likely to prevent deaths on the same scale in case an earthquake visited again.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kathmandu, Nepal: Mandala Book Point, 2017
Keywords
Historical disaster research, Global history, South Asian history, Earthquake, Earthquake engineering, Disaster reconstruction, Town planning, Postcolonial studies, Bihar, India, Nepal
National Category
History
Research subject
Humanities, History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-75307 (URN)
Available from: 2018-06-07 Created: 2018-06-07 Last updated: 2019-09-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5938-0966

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