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Reinhold, S., Zach, F. J. & Laesser, C. (2020). E-business models in tourism. In: Zheng Xiang, Matthias Fuchs, Ulrike Gretzel & Wolfram Höpken (Ed.), Handbook of e-tourism: (pp. 1-30). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>E-business models in tourism
2020 (English)In: Handbook of e-tourism / [ed] Zheng Xiang, Matthias Fuchs, Ulrike Gretzel & Wolfram Höpken, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 1-30Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this chapter is to reflect on business models employed by online travel service providers since the beginning of online travel until 2019. In lockstep with technological development, this study identified three time periods of development. For each period, we investigate cases that best represent e-business model development. Employing Wirtz’s four business-to-consumer business model subtypes, we found that the commerce-type model (focus on trade transactions) dominated online travel agencies until 2000, while the next period was characterized by the advent of Web 2.0-enabled content-type models (providing online content, specifically user-generated content) and context-type models (aggregation of already existing online content) for information search portals. Finally, the increased complexity of the Internet in the last decade is also captured in multiple online business models, including the connection-type model (establishing real or virtual connections) pursued by platform businesses. The chapter offers avenues for future research that relate to theoretical issues across the three identified periods and an outlook of future tourism business model developments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2020
Keywords
e-Business model, Internet, Travel, Innovation, Platform, Value creation
National Category
Business Administration Information Systems
Research subject
Tourism; Computer and Information Sciences Computer Science, Information Systems; Economy, Business administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-93270 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-05324-6_71-1 (DOI)9783030053246 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-04-04 Created: 2020-04-04 Last updated: 2020-04-15Bibliographically approved
Reinhold, S., Laesser, C. & Beritelli, P. (2020). Flow-based destination management and marketing: a perspective article. Tourism Review, 75(1), 174-178
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flow-based destination management and marketing: a perspective article
2020 (English)In: Tourism Review, ISSN 1660-5373, E-ISSN 1759-8451, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 174-178Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a selective review of sectoral and academic developments that have led to the flow-based view of destination management and marketing and inspires future work.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of the relevant literature serves as a foundation for the discussion of the flow-based view of destination management and marketing. From the results of this review, future prospects for practice and research are derived.

Findings

Destination management and marketing has undergone many changes in the past and is subject for some major overhauls in the future.

Originality/value

The paper inspires in terms of rather asking questions for the future than finding answers from the past.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2020
Keywords
Destination marketing, DMO, Destination management, Flow-based destination management
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Economy, Business administration; Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89153 (URN)10.1108/TR-05-2019-0193 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-09-16 Created: 2019-09-16 Last updated: 2020-04-30
Beritelli, P., Reinhold, S. & Laesser, C. (2020). Logics behind evading overnight taxes: a configurational analysis. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32(2), 871-888
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Logics behind evading overnight taxes: a configurational analysis
2020 (English)In: International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, ISSN 0959-6119, E-ISSN 1757-1049, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 871-888Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

Overnight taxes are controversial. They affect tourists’ consumption behavior and hotels’ profits. This potentially generates undesirable industry practices such as underreporting overnights to evade overnight taxes. The aim of the paper is to understand the conditions and outcomes of underreporting. This is important because underreporting affects destinations’ tax income, which in turn may have further effects on tourism or other public services.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses qualitative comparative analysis to identify what specific combinations of conditions motivate managers of hospitality businesses to evade overnight taxes.

Findings

While potential economic gain seems to be the obvious answer, this study finds that different configurations of causal conditions account for non-compliance. Four different configurations combining six conditions explain the logics behind hotel overnight tax evasion behavior. The conditions refer to both utilitarian affordances and the individual tax morale of hospitality managers. Certain utilitarian conditions in combination can overrule moral objections to non-compliance.

Originality/value

The study provides a nuanced understanding of overnight tax evasion motives and suggests how to connect work on tourism taxes with destination governance issues and destination management organization funding.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2020
Keywords
Overnight taxes, Tax evasion, QCA, DMO, Tax morale, Hotel
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Tourism; Economy, Business administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-90701 (URN)10.1108/IJCHM-05-2019-0421 (DOI)000511440700001 ()
Available from: 2020-01-03 Created: 2020-01-03 Last updated: 2020-02-21Bibliographically approved
Beritelli, P., Reinhold, S. & Laesser, C. (2020). Visitor flows, trajectories and corridors: planning and designing places from the traveler's point of view. Annals of Tourism Research, 82(May), 1-13, Article ID 102936.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visitor flows, trajectories and corridors: planning and designing places from the traveler's point of view
2020 (English)In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 82, no May, p. 1-13, article id 102936Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent research underlines the importance of understanding the tourist destination as a demand-driven construct. Visitors activate different configurations of supply elements that produce a complex and dynamic fabric referred to as a space of flows. Today, we have the means to understand how these flows shape the evolution and gestalt of tourist places. This article proposes a new framework combining three concepts and related foundational theories: visitor flows, trajectories, and corridors. In tandem, they describe how tourism manifests itself in space and time. Trip decision, trip execution, and tourist performance unfold through social mechanisms generating the totality of visitor flows. Stakeholders must understand how visitor flows in their destinations emerge and evolve in order to decide on specific design interventions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Destination marketing and management, Place design, Tourism planning, Visitor flows, Trajectories, Corridors
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Economy, Business administration; Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-94104 (URN)10.1016/j.annals.2020.102936 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-04-30 Created: 2020-04-30 Last updated: 2020-04-30Bibliographically approved
Reinhold, S., Beritelli, P. & Grünig, R. (2019). A business model typology for destination management organizations. Tourism Review, 74(6), 1135-1152
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A business model typology for destination management organizations
2019 (English)In: Tourism Review, ISSN 1660-5373, E-ISSN 1759-8451, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 1135-1152Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The need and legitimacy of destination management organizations (DMOs) are increasingly questioned. Still, the tourism literature provides little advice on how DMOs change and finance their activities for the benefit of their destination-given contextual change. This conceptual article aims to contribute to filling this gap. The authors do so by proposing a typology of business models for destination management organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

With the help of typological reasoning, the authors develop a new framework of DMO business model ideal types. To this end, the authors draw on extant literature on business model typologies and identify key dimensions of DMO business models from the tourism literature.

Findings

The challenges DMOs face, as discussed in the tourism literature, relate to both ends of their business model: On the one end, the value creation side, the perceived value of the activities they traditionally pursue has been declining; on the other end, the value capture side, revenue streams are less plentiful or attached to more extensive demands. On the basis of two dimensions, configurational complexity and perceived control, the authors identify four distinct ideal types of DMO business models: the destination factory, destination service center, value orchestrator and value enabler.

Originality/value

The authors outline a “traditional” DMO business model that stands in contrast to existing DMO classifications and that relates DMO challenges to the business model concept. The typology provides an integrated description of how DMO business models may be positioned to create and capture value for the organization and the destination(s) it serves. The ideal types point to important interdependencies of specific business model design choices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019
Keywords
Business model, Value creation, Typology, Value capture, DMO
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80636 (URN)10.1108/tr-03-2017-0065 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-02-18 Created: 2019-02-18 Last updated: 2019-12-06Bibliographically approved
Reinhold, S., Zach, F. J. & Krizaj, D. (2019). Business models in tourism – state of the art. Tourism Review, 74(6), 1120-1134
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business models in tourism – state of the art
2019 (English)In: Tourism Review, ISSN 1660-5373, E-ISSN 1759-8451, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 1120-1134Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

This paper aims to review the state of the art for the Tourism Reviewspecial issue on “Business Models in Tourism”. The authors’ purpose is twofold: first, to contextualize the empirical and conceptual contributions featured in the special issue in relation to the state of research on business models in tourism. Second, the authors position the special issue in the broader scholarly conversation on business models to identify avenues for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors systematically review the content of tourism-specific business model studies from leading literature databases to answer four questions relevant for future work on business models in tourism: First, how do tourism scholars define the business model concept? Second, what is the ontological stance (object, schema or tool) of existing studies of tourism business models? Third, what are the methodological preferences of existing work on business models in tourism? And finally, what qualifies as rigorous business model research?

Findings

From the critical review of 32 contributions, the authors identify a minimal consensus and dominant approach to conceptualizing the business model concept in tourism studies. In addition, the authors reveal a strong preference for small-n case study research designs. In sum, those findings point to important gaps and design decisions for future business model studies in tourism.

Originality/value

This review of the state of research on business models in tourism details research opportunities with regard to theory, methods and applications that tourism scholars can investigate to contribute to the theory and practice of business model management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019
Keywords
Tourism, Review, Business model, Special issue, Avenues
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80662 (URN)10.1108/TR-02-2018-0027 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-12-06Bibliographically approved
Reinhold, S., Zach, F. J. & Krizaj, D. (2019). Editorial - Business Models in Tourism. Tourism Review, 74(6), 1117-1119
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Editorial - Business Models in Tourism
2019 (English)In: Tourism Review, ISSN 1660-5373, E-ISSN 1759-8451, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 1117-1119Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

As advocates of a fascinating research context and an applied discipline, tourism and hospitality, scholars are developing unique concepts to explain travel-related phenomena and are on the lookout for new theories and theoretical frameworks from other disciplines that help them make sense of the shifts and swings in market behavior. The focus of this special issue, the business model concept, is part of the latter category and aligns with Tourism Review's aspiration to advance our understanding of tourism value creation from a multidisciplinary, holistic perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019
Keywords
business model, tourism, editorial
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Tourism; Economy, Business administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-90702 (URN)10.1108/TR-11-2019-384 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-01-03 Created: 2020-01-03 Last updated: 2020-01-15Bibliographically approved
Beritelli, P., Reinhold, S. & Luo, J. (2019). "How come you are here?": Considering the context in research on travel decisions [Letter to the editor]. Journal of Travel Research, 58(2), 333-337
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"How come you are here?": Considering the context in research on travel decisions
2019 (English)In: Journal of Travel Research, ISSN 0047-2875, E-ISSN 1552-6763, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 333-337Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Travel decision research still struggles to explain a large portion of the variance in travel choices. We argue that advances in this domain must originate from a shift in the kinds of questions we ask travelers to understand what triggers their decisions. The proposed shift from “Why did you . . . ?” to “How come . . . ?” changes the emphasis from retrospective sense giving to a contextual understanding of travel choice, focusing in particular on the constellations that produce actual travel behavior. This shift opens research avenues of a new theoretical and methodological nature and has fundamental implications for consumer research as well as destination marketing practices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
travel decision, decision context, decision heuristics, “how come?”, social embeddedness
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80634 (URN)10.1177/0047287517746017 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-02-18 Created: 2019-02-18 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
Beritelli, P., Gabriella, C., Reinhold, S. & Schanderl, V. (2019). How Flow-Based Destination Management Blends Theory and Method for Practical Impact. In: Nazmi Kozak & Metin Kozak (Ed.), Tourist Destination Management: Instruments, Products, and Case Studies (pp. 289-310). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How Flow-Based Destination Management Blends Theory and Method for Practical Impact
2019 (English)In: Tourist Destination Management: Instruments, Products, and Case Studies / [ed] Nazmi Kozak & Metin Kozak, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 289-310Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The practicalities of destination management present daunting challenges. We introduce «The Visitor Flow Approach» as a way to deal with those challenges. This practical approach to destination management is an example of how research on destination management can bridge the divide between insights and impact despite theorizing tourism as a complex social phenomenon. Specifically, we illustrate how Swisscontact, a development agency, blends the theory of flow-based destination management and the six–step method of the St. Gallen Model for Destination Management to create real impact in emerging and developing countries. We present their experiences and lessons learned from four specific contexts (Laos, Macedonia, Kosovo, and Indonesia) and additional applications across four continents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2019
Keywords
visitor flow, practice, theory, destination management
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82358 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-16981-7_17 (DOI)978-3-030-16980-0 (ISBN)978-3-030-16981-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-05-14Bibliographically approved
Beritelli, P. & Reinhold, S. (2018). Chance meetings, the destination paradox, and the social origins of travel: predicting traveler's whereabouts?. Tourist Studies, 18(4), 417-441
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chance meetings, the destination paradox, and the social origins of travel: predicting traveler's whereabouts?
2018 (English)In: Tourist Studies, ISSN 1468-7976, E-ISSN 1741-3206, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 417-441Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Have you ever unexpectedly met someone you already knew in a remote travel destination? Many people have or will at least a couple times in their travel biography. In this article, we theorize how such chance meetings help better understand the socially embedded nature of travel behavior and choice. We validate the underlying assumptions with an exploratory empirical study. By conceptualizing chance meetings and connecting them with social network theory, we get closer to predicting where people precisely travel and what activities they engage in at particular points in time. This socially embedded perspective transcends the importance of attractions and activities as object of reference between traveler and place. Broadly, these findings contribute to the discussion on the social origins of travel and on how choices are taken in travel.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
chance meeting, destination, experiential corridors, paradox, social embeddedness, weak ties
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80635 (URN)10.1177/1468797617748292 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-02-18 Created: 2019-02-18 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6942-2816

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