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Siegel, A. & Seedhouse, P. (2019). Conversation Analysis and Classroom Interaction. In: Carol A. Chapelle (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics: . Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conversation Analysis and Classroom Interaction
2019 (English)In: The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics / [ed] Carol A. Chapelle, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Researchers in the area of language teaching and learning had previously shied away from examining the micro‐detail of classroom interaction, regarding it as an excessively complex, heterogeneous, and particularly “messy” source of data. However, studies utilizing conversation analysis (CA) have demonstrated that second/foreign‐language (L2) classroom interaction can be analyzed, and, as with conversation, there is order at all points. In recent years, a wide range of languages, subjects, age groups, teaching practices, and classroom activities have been analyzed using CA, including task‐based language teaching and content and language‐integrated learning. This entry discusses how CA has been employed to investigate interaction which occurs in L2 classrooms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2019
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89047 (URN)10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0198.pub2 (DOI)
Note

Based in part on P. Seedhouse (2012). Conversation analysis and classroom interaction. In C. A. Chapelle (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-12-06Bibliographically approved
Siegel, A. (2018). Superficial intersubjectivity in ELF university dormitory interactions. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, 7(2), 377-402
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Superficial intersubjectivity in ELF university dormitory interactions
2018 (English)In: Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, ISSN 2191-9216, E-ISSN 2191-933X, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 377-402Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current study investigates the phenomena of “superficial intersubjectivity” occurring in English as a lingua franca (ELF) interactions at an international university dormitory in Japan. “Intersubjectivity” (Rommetveit, Ragnar. 1976. On the architecture of intersubjectivity. In Ragnar Rommetveit & Rolv Mikkel Blakar [eds.], Studies of language, thought, and verbal communication, 93–107. New York: Academic Press) refers to the shared perspective of the social world by the interlocutors. In ELF interactions where shared perspectives cannot be presumed, efforts to achieve intersubjectivity are critical. ELF research has explicated speakers’ efforts and cooperativeness to achieve intersubjectivity or avoid misunderstandings during interactions (Kaur, Jagdish. 2011a. “Doing being a language expert”: The case of the ELF speaker. In Alasdair Archibald, Alessia Cogo & Jennifer Jenkins [eds.], Latest Trends in ELF Research, 53–75. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing; Seidlhofer, Barbara. 2001. Closing a conceptual gap: The case for a description of English as a lingua franca. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 11[2]. 133–158). However, few studies have investigated cases where speakers display mutual understanding during a repair sequence even when the understanding is not accurate.

Approximately 37 hours of naturally occurring ELF interactions were collected and analyzed using a standard conversation analysis followed by a post-analytic researcher observation. Detailed analyses of repair sequences regarding a word suggest that in non-institutional ELF interactions the accuracy of intersubjectivity is not always prioritized. Rather, statements made by the speaker positioned as the one with relatively stronger linguistic ability seem to hold influence over the repair sequence, which prompts the interlocutor with relatively weaker ability to agree with inaccurate candidate understandings. The study suggests a connection between the positioning of speakers regarding linguistic knowledge and the construction of intersubjectivity in ELF interactions.

Abstract [ja]

本稿は日本における国際的な大学寮で取り交わされた共通語としての英語(ELF)の相互行為を通してみられた「表面的な共有理解」について探究する。共有理解、もしくは「間主観性」 (Rommetveit 1976) とは話者同士が現実社会に関して共有する認識のことである。使用言語を含め、共有認識を前提とできないELF相互行為において共有理解を維持する努力は非常に重要である。ELFの先行研究は共有理解を得たり誤解を避けたりする為の話者らによる協力的な姿勢や様々な手法を明らかにしてきた(例: Kaur (2011a); Seidlhofer (2001))。しかし、修復連鎖中において話者らが正確な理解が得られていない場合でも同意を示す事象を分析した研究はほとんどない。

 本研究は約37時間の自然発生的会話データに会話分析を施した後、研究者による観察を用いて分析した。その結果、大学内であっても教室外のELF相互行為においては共有理解の正確さが常に優先されるとは限らないことがみえてきた 。むしろ、話者間で比較的言語能力の高い位置づけにある話者による発言は同意形成過程に強い影響力を持っており、比較的言語能力の低い位置づけにある話者が不正確な理解に同意を示すことにつながっていた。本研究結果は話者の言語知識に関する相互行為上の位置づけと共有理解構築の間に関連があることを示唆している。

Keywords
English as a lingua franca, intersubjectivity, repair sequence, 共通語としての英語, 間主観性, 共有理解, 修復連鎖
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
Humanities, English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80909 (URN)10.1515/jelf-2018-0015 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053270036 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-02 Created: 2019-03-02 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Siegel, A. (2016). “Oh no, it’s just culture”: Multicultural Identities in Action in ELF Interactions. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, 6(2), 193-215
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“Oh no, it’s just culture”: Multicultural Identities in Action in ELF Interactions
2016 (English)In: Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, ISSN 0957-6851, E-ISSN 1569-9838, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 193-215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the dynamic identities of an Asian university student engaged in English as a lingua franca (ELF) interactions from a membership categorization analysis (MCA) approach (Sacks, 1972a, 1989). Studies adopting MCA have demonstrated that identity and intercultural membership are co-constructed in ongoing interactions (e.g., Nishizaka, 1999; E. Zimmerman, 2007). Nevertheless, MCA studies have yet to document the multicultural identity of an individual and the ways in which members co-construct their multifaceted identities in naturally occurring non-institutional ELF interactions. The study analyzes interactions between two participants from different Asian countries, Japan and Korea. Approximately three hours of video recorded conversations were collected across four months. In and through the interaction, one of the participants was found utilizing multiple cultural identities to accomplish interactive goals. In addition, “language-form related category-bound activity” was used in constructing these identities. This study challenges the use of predetermined social categories and suggests an organic and interactional approach to identity construction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2016
Keywords
English as a lingua franca, language-form related category-bound activity, membership categorization analysis, multicultural identity and returnee
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Humanities; Humanities, English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80924 (URN)10.1075/japc.26.2.02sie (DOI)
Available from: 2019-03-03 Created: 2019-03-03 Last updated: 2019-04-08Bibliographically approved
Siegel, J. & Siegel, A. (2015). Getting to the bottom of L2 listening instruction: Making a case for bottom-up activities. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 5(4), 637-662
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Getting to the bottom of L2 listening instruction: Making a case for bottom-up activities
2015 (English)In: Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, ISSN 2084-1965, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 637-662Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper argues for the incorporation of bottom-up activities for English as a foreign language (EFL) listening. It discusses theoretical concepts and pedagogic options for addressing bottom-up aural processing in the EFL classroom as well as how and why teachers may wish to include such activities in lessons. This discussion is augmented by a small-scale classroom-based research project that investigated six activities targeting learners’ bottom-up listening abilities. Learners studying at the lower-intermediate level of a compulsory EFL university course were divided into a treatment group (n = 21) and a contrast group (n = 32). Each group listened to the same audio material and completed listening activities from an assigned textbook. The treatment group also engaged in a set of six bottom-up listening activities using the same material. This quasi-experimental study used dictation and listening proficiency tests before and after the course. Between-group comparisons of t-test results of dictation and listening proficiency tests indicated that improvements for the treatment group were probably due to the BU intervention. In addition, results from a posttreatment survey suggested that learners value explicit bottom-up listening instruction.

Keywords
listening pedagogy, bottom-up listening activities, dictation, listening proficiency
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80925 (URN)10.14746/ssllt.2015.5.4.6 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-03-03 Created: 2019-03-03 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
Siegel, A. (2015). Social epistemics for analyzing longitudinal language learner development. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 25(1), 83-104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social epistemics for analyzing longitudinal language learner development
2015 (English)In: International Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0802-6106, E-ISSN 1473-4192, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 83-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Drawing on the notion of epistemic stance (Heritage 2013) and utilizing the analytical framework of Conversation Analysis, this study investigates the development of language learner identity from a longitudinal socio‐interactional perspective and suggests an alternative perspective in analyzing L2 development. English as a lingua‐franca interactions at a university dormitory in Japan were collected across 22 months between two participants with different L1s. Through the analysis of word search sequences, participants were found utilizing and managing claim of rights to the knowledge of language in constructing language expert or novice identities. Furthermore, these sequentially contingent positions were found negotiable and changeable, displaying learner identity and development as a co‐constructed phenomenon. This study suggests social epistemics and identity as a framework for analyzing language learner development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2015
Keywords
language learner development, epistemic stance, learner identity, conversation analysis
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80926 (URN)10.1111/ijal.12052 (DOI)2-s2.0-84924119672 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-03 Created: 2019-03-03 Last updated: 2019-04-08Bibliographically approved
Siegel, A. (2014). What should we talk about?: The authenticity of textbook topics. ELT Journal, 68(4), 363-375
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What should we talk about?: The authenticity of textbook topics
2014 (English)In: ELT Journal, ISSN 0951-0893, E-ISSN 1477-4526, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 363-375Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Topics presented in textbooks and covered in language classrooms are crucial parts of language teaching, as they facilitate student engagement, willingness to communicate, and ultimately, learning. However, whilst researchers and practitioners frequently discuss the authenticity of the language in textbooks, the authenticity and usefulness of textbook topics are rarely discussed or evaluated. To investigate their authenticity, topics from ELT textbooks and naturally occurring conversations were collected, categorized, and compared. The conversations occurred in English between Japanese and non-Japanese students from ten different countries at a university dormitory in Japan. When the textbooks and conversations were compared, large discrepancies between the treatment of some topics became evident, including students’ school lives. Pedagogic implications stemming from this review include incorporating topics that are realistic and practical for L2 English users into language classrooms to better prepare students for the ‘world out there’.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80927 (URN)10.1093/elt/ccu012 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-03-03 Created: 2019-03-03 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9268-6481

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