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Mutafela, R. N., Lopez, E. G., Dahlin, T., Kaczala, F., Marques, M., Jani, Y. & Hogland, W. (2020). Geophysical investigation of glass 'hotspots' in glass dumps as potential secondary raw material sources. Waste Management, 106, 213-225
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geophysical investigation of glass 'hotspots' in glass dumps as potential secondary raw material sources
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2020 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 106, p. 213-225Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the potential for Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to detect buried glass ‘hotspots’ in a glass waste dump based on results from an open glass dump investigated initially. This detection potential is vital for excavation and later use of buried materials as secondary resources. After ERT, test pits (TPs) were excavated around suspected glass hotspots and physico-chemical characterisation of the materials was done. Hotspots were successfully identified as regions of high resistivity (>8000 Ωm) and were thus confirmed by TPs which indicated mean glass composition of 87.2% among samples (up to 99% in some). However, high discrepancies in material resistivities increased the risk for introduction of artefacts, thus increasing the degree of uncertainty with depth, whereas similarities in resistivity between granite bedrock and crystal glass presented data misinterpretation risks. Nevertheless, suitable survey design, careful field procedures and caution exercised by basing data interpretations primarily on TP excavation observations generated good results particularly for near-surface materials, which is useful since glass waste dumps are inherently shallow. Thus, ERT could be a useful technique for obtaining more homogeneous excavated glass and other materials for use as secondary resources in metal extraction and other waste recycling techniques while eliminating complicated and often costly waste sorting needs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Electrical resistivity tomography, secondary resources, glass waste, landfill mining, waste characterisation, circular economy
National Category
Geophysical Engineering
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental technology; Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-93190 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2020.03.027 (DOI)000525840000027 ()32240938 (PubMedID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2017-03244
Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
Mutafela, R. (2020). Landfill mining approach for resource recovery from glass dumps into the circular economy. (Doctoral dissertation). Växjö: Linnaeus University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Landfill mining approach for resource recovery from glass dumps into the circular economy
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Landfills and open dumps have been the most cost-effective waste disposal option, resulting in over 500,000 landfills and dumps in the EU alone. They pose significant environmental and health threats due to emission of toxic gases and release of persistent contaminants to soil and groundwater, triggering a considerable global economic impact annually. Contrariwise, since they have been the ultimate end-of-life sink for materials over time, dumpsites are potential secondary resource reservoirs whose recovery could offset their impacts. However, resource recovery is impeded by the heterogeneous nature and contamination of the wastes, and thus uncertainty about availability and efficiency of recovery techniques. This thesis, therefore, proposes techniques that could improve excavated material quality and enhance their recovery as potential secondary resources for the circular economy.

Waste from glass dumps in south-eastern Sweden was characterised to evaluate safe handling, pre-recycling storage requirements, and suitability for resource recovery or disposal. The dumps were mapped with Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) before excavation to detect glass locations and enhance recovery. Furthermore, metal extraction from the recovered glass was assessed using a combination of mechanical activation of the glass and leaching with acids and biodegradable chelating agents. The waste required safe pre-recycling storage in hazardous waste class ‘bank account’ cells due to hazardous concentrations of leachable As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn. The waste obtained was also highly heterogeneous, although its recycling could not pose any radiological risks. However, application of ERT as a pre-excavation tool improved excavated material composition and secured a more homogeneous, recyclable fraction (>87% glass). Subsequently, leaching of the homogeneous glass fraction achieved Pb extraction efficiency of 78%, 64% and 42% for HNO3, EDDS and NTA respectively, at low leachant concentrations. The extraction was enhanced by the mechanical activation step, as comparison between activated and inactivated samples showed a 1200% difference in extraction.

The findings in this thesis highlight dumped waste as a resource whose recovery requires integrating the landfill mining approach with techniques that enhance material quality and extraction efficiency to ensure a resource-secure circular economy and decontaminated ecosystems.

Abstract [sv]

Deponier och öppna soptippar har varit det mest kostnadseffektiva alternativet för avfallshantering, vilket resulterade i över 500 000 deponier och soptippar bara inom EU. Dessa utgör stora miljö- och hälsorisker på grund av utsläpp av giftiga gaser och frigör föroreningar till mark och grundvatten, vilket årligen skapar betydande, globala ekonomiska konsekvenser. Eftersom de har varit det ultimata slutet för material över tid, så är deponier och soptippar potentiella, sekundära resursbehållare vars återvinning kan kompensera deras negativa effekter. Resursåtervinning hindras emellertid av den heterogena naturen hos, och förekommande föroreningar i, avfallet, vilket därmed skapar osäkerhet om återhämtnings-teknikernas tillgänglighet och effektivitet. Föreliggande avhandling föreslår därför tekniker som kan förbättra de utgrävda materialens kvalitet och förbättra deras återvinning som potentiella, sekundära resurser i den cirkulära ekonomin.

Avfall från glas-deponier i sydöstra Sverige karakteriserades för att utvärdera säker hantering, uppfylla lagringskrav för återvinning och lämplighet för resursåtervinning eller bortskaffande. Deponierna kartlades före utgrävningen med Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) för att identifiera platser med homogena glasfraktioner och förbättra återvinningen. Vidare utvärderades metallexstraktion från det utvunna glaset med användning av en kombination av mekanisk aktivering av glaset och urlakning med syror och biologiskt nedbrytbara kelatbildare. Avfallet krävde säker återvinnings-lagring i ”bankkonto-celler" för farligt avfall på grund av farliga koncentrationer av lakningsbara ämnen såsom As, Cd, Pb, Sb och Zn. Det erhållna avfallet var mycket heterogent, men återvinning kunde ändå inte påvisa några radiologiska risker. Användningen av ERT som ett identifikationsverktyg förbättrade emellertid den utgrävda materialkompositionen och säkerställde en mer homogen, återvinningsbar fraktion (>87% glas). Därefter uppnåddes urlakning av den homogena glasfraktionen en Pb-extraktionseffektivitet på 78%, 64% och 42% för HNO3, EDDS respektive NTA, vid låg lakningsmedel-koncentration. Extraktionen förbättrades genom det mekaniska aktiveringssteget, eftersom jämförelse mellan aktiverade och inaktiverade prover uppvisade en skillnad på 1200% i extraktion.

Resultaten i denna avhandling belyser deponerat avfall som en resurs vars återvinning kräver att integrera landfill mining-metoder med tekniker som förbättrar materialkvaliteten och utvinningseffektiviteten för att säkerställa en resurs-säker cirkulär ekonomi och dekontaminerade ekosystem.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2020. p. 70
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 381/2020
Keywords
Resource recovery, landfill mining, hazardous waste, hydrometallurgical extraction, geophysical mapping, circular economy, Återvinning av resurser, gruvdrift, farligt avfall, hydrometallurgisk utvinning, geofysisk kartläggning, cirkulär ekonomi
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-93643 (URN)978-91-89081-50-5 (ISBN)978-91-89081-51-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-05-08, Fullriggaren (MA 135), Landgången 3, 392 31, Kalmar, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2020-04-21 Created: 2020-04-21 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
Mutafela, R. N., Mantero, J., Jani, Y., Thomas, R., Holm, E. & Hogland, W. (2020). Radiometrical and physico-chemical characterisation of contaminated glass waste from a glass dump in Sweden. Chemosphere, 241, 1-10, Article ID 124964.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Radiometrical and physico-chemical characterisation of contaminated glass waste from a glass dump in Sweden
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2020 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 241, p. 1-10, article id 124964Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Around former glass factories in south eastern Sweden, there are dozens of dumps whose radioactivity and physico-chemical properties were not investigated previously. Thus, radiometric and physico-chemical characteristics of waste at Madesjö glass dump were studied to evaluate pre-recycling storage requirements and potential radiological and environmental risks. The material was sieved, hand-sorted, leached and scanned with X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). External dose rates and activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials from 238U, 232Th series and 40K were also measured coupled with a radiological risk assessment. Results showed that the waste was 95% glass and dominated by fine fractions (< 11.3 mm) at 43.6%. The fine fraction had pH 7.8, 2.6% moisture content, 123 mg kg-1 Total Dissolved Solids, 37.2 mg kg-1 Dissolved Organic Carbon and 10.5 mg kg-1 fluorides. Compared with Swedish EPA guidelines, the elements As, Cd, Pb and Zn were in hazardous concentrations while Pb leached more than the limits for inert and non-hazardous wastes. With 40K activity concentration up to 3000 Bq kg-1, enhanced external dose rates of 40K were established (0.20 mSv h-1) although no radiological risk was found since both External Hazard Index (Hex) and Gamma Index (Iγ) were < 1. The glass dump needs remediation and storage of the waste materials under a safe hazardous waste class ‘Bank Account’ storage cell as a secondary resource for potential future recycling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Glass waste, Physico-chemical characterisation, Fine fraction, NORM, Dose rates, Risk assessment
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89504 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124964 (DOI)000509791600088 ()31604195 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SSM 2017-1074Vinnova, 2016-05279
Available from: 2019-10-09 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
Hogland, W., Burlakovs, J., Mutafela, R. & Jani, Y. (2019). From glass dump to phytoremediation park. In: XVI-th International youth Science and Environmental Baltic Region Countries Forum 7–9 October 2019, Gdansk, Poland: . Paper presented at 16th International Youth Science and Environmental Baltic Region Countries Forum, ECOBALTICA 2019, Gdansk, Poland, October 7-9, 2019 (pp. 1-4). Institute of Physics (IOP), 390, Article ID 012007.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From glass dump to phytoremediation park
2019 (English)In: XVI-th International youth Science and Environmental Baltic Region Countries Forum 7–9 October 2019, Gdansk, Poland, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2019, Vol. 390, p. 1-4, article id 012007Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Landfill mining was introduced in research in Sweden for more than three and a half decades ago. During recent years, the focus has been on the glass dumps in the Kingdom of Crystal in southeastern Sweden. Mapping of the dumps, test pit excavations, sieving and sorting of the glass masses, characterization, laboratory extraction of the metals in the glass was performed as well as measurements of radioactivity done. The polluted soil underneath the removed glass masses was treated by remediation. At one of places at the Kingdom of Crystal a phytoremediation/tourist park was established in Orrefors including a summer glasswork for tourist activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2019
Series
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, ISSN 1755-1307, E-ISSN 1755-1315
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89541 (URN)10.1088/1755-1315/390/1/012007 (DOI)
Conference
16th International Youth Science and Environmental Baltic Region Countries Forum, ECOBALTICA 2019, Gdansk, Poland, October 7-9, 2019
Available from: 2019-10-11 Created: 2019-10-11 Last updated: 2020-05-13Bibliographically approved
Mutafela, R., Marques, M., Jani, Y., Kriipsalu, M. & Hogland, W. (2019). Physico-chemical characteristics of fine fraction materials from an old crystal glass dumpsite in Sweden. Chemistry in ecology, 35(8), 877-890
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physico-chemical characteristics of fine fraction materials from an old crystal glass dumpsite in Sweden
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2019 (English)In: Chemistry in ecology, ISSN 0275-7540, E-ISSN 1029-0370, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 877-890Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Physico-chemical characteristics of waste, particularly fine fraction (FF), from an old crystal glass waste dump in Sweden were studied to assess recycling or disposal alternatives. Hand-sorting of the waste indicated glass content of 44.1% while sieving established the FF as a more soil-like mix of glass and other materials constituting 33.3% of all excavated waste. The FF was around neutral pH with 24.4% moisture content, low values of Total Dissolved Solids, Dissolved Organic Carbon and fluorides, but hazardous concentrations of As, Cd, Pb and Zn according to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. While the FF leached metals in low concentrations at neutral pH, it leached considerably during digestion with nitric acid, implying leaching risks at low pH. Thus, the waste requires safe storage in hazardous waste class ‘bank account’ storage cells to avoid environmental contamination as metal recovery and other recycling strategies for the glass waste are being developed. The study could fill the information gap regarding preservation of potential resources in the on-going, fast-paced excavation and re-landfilling of heavy metal contaminated materials in the region.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Waste characterisation, physico-chemical characteristics, glass waste, fine fraction, heavy metals, circular economy
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-87086 (URN)10.1080/02757540.2019.1648442 (DOI)000479933500001 ()
Funder
Vinnova, 2016-05279
Available from: 2019-08-04 Created: 2019-08-04 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
Jani, Y., Mutafela, R., Ferrans, L., Ling, G., Burlakovs, J. & Hogland, W. (2019). Phytoremediation as a promising method for the treatment of contaminated sediments. Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, 10(1), 58-64
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phytoremediation as a promising method for the treatment of contaminated sediments
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2019 (English)In: Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, ISSN 2079-2115, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 58-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dredging activities are necessary to maintain the navigation depth of harbors and channels. Additionally,dredging can prevent the loss of water bodies. A large amount of extracted sediments is produced around theworld. Removed material is widely disposed at open seas or landfills. Much of the dredged material is pollutedand is classified as unsuitable for open-sea disposal. In Sweden, many dredging activities are taking placenowadays like that in Oskarshamn harbor, Inre harbor Norrköping municipality and Malmfjärden bay inKalmar. In this review, the potential of phytoremediation as a treatment method is discussed with focus onsuggested methods for reusing the treated sediments. Recycling or reusing of dredged and treated sedimentswill preserve Earth natural resources as well as reduce diffusion of contaminants to the environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Iran: Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, 2019
Keywords
Phytoremediation, Metals, Sediments, Dredging
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82514 (URN)
Available from: 2019-05-13 Created: 2019-05-13 Last updated: 2020-05-27Bibliographically approved
Mutafela, R., Jani, Y. & Hogland, W. (2018). Circular Economy Perspectives in Managing Old Contaminated Glass Dumps. In: 11th International Conference on the Establishment of Cooperation among Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World, Kalmar, Sweden, November 19-21, 2018: Book of Abstracts. Paper presented at Linnaeus Eco-Tech 2018 (pp. 149). Kalmar, Växjö: Linnaeus university
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Circular Economy Perspectives in Managing Old Contaminated Glass Dumps
2018 (English)In: 11th International Conference on the Establishment of Cooperation among Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World, Kalmar, Sweden, November 19-21, 2018: Book of Abstracts, Kalmar, Växjö: Linnaeus university , 2018, p. 149-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Landfills and dumpsites have been the ultimate end of life sinks for various materials and products. As such, they are considered rich stocks of secondary raw materials for the circular economy. However, most of them are non-sanitary as they lack protective measures against environmental contamination. Over the years, the need to exploit the resource potential of landfills as well as to mitigate their contamination problems, among other factors, has led to the concept of landfill mining, resulting in a number of mainly pilot scale mining of landfills and dumps globally. In southeastern Sweden for instance, where there are over forty old, contaminated glass dumps, a number of remedial dumpsite excavations have been going on, with eventual landfilling of excavated materials in sanitary landfills. Hence, based on the Swedish situation, this study presents three scenarios about: contaminated materials in non-sanitary dumps as they currently stand; ongoing material excavations with subsequent landfilling; and material excavations coupled with materials recovery towards reduced landfilling. The third scenario is presented as more suitable from the circular economy perspective. The scenario is thus discussed in terms of technological implications of the process from identification of concealed valuable materials in dumps to their excavation, sorting, temporal storage, valorization and eventual resource recovery. In addition, legal implications as well as potential social, economic and environmental barriers against the scenario’s implementation are discussed. Finally, the study provides recommendations that would be useful in decision making surrounding the management of contaminated and non-sanitary dumpsites.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kalmar, Växjö: Linnaeus university, 2018
Keywords
Circular economy, glass waste, heavy metals, landfill mining, waste management
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82521 (URN)978-91-88898-28-9 (ISBN)
Conference
Linnaeus Eco-Tech 2018
Available from: 2019-05-13 Created: 2019-05-13 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
Mutafela, R., Kaczala, F., Jani, Y., Aid, G. & Hogland, W. (2018). Methods for investigation of old glass waste dumpsites. In: Peter Tom Jones & Lieven Machiels (Ed.), Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium On Enhanced Landfill Mining: 5-6 February 2018, Mechelen, Belgium. Paper presented at 4th International Symposium On Enhanced Landfill Mining, Mechelen, Belgium, February 5-6, 2018 (pp. 145-150). Leuven, Belgium: European Enhanced Landfill Mining Consortium (EURELCO)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods for investigation of old glass waste dumpsites
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium On Enhanced Landfill Mining: 5-6 February 2018, Mechelen, Belgium / [ed] Peter Tom Jones & Lieven Machiels, Leuven, Belgium: European Enhanced Landfill Mining Consortium (EURELCO) , 2018, p. 145-150Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An old glass dumpsite in southern Sweden was mapped and investigated to locate

glass abundance zones (“hotspots”) and understand physicochemical parametres of

the waste. Global Positioning System (GPS) was used for mapping the site while a

geophysical method of Electrical Resistivity was used for detecting glass hotspots in

the dump. Test pits were excavated and samples taken, after which hand sorting,

sieving and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) scanning of the waste were used for

physicochemical properties. Geophysical mapping was found to be a feasible nondestructive

tool in locating glass hotspots. In terms of composition, glass was found

to be the most abundant fraction at 90% average from all 4 sampling points. From

particle size distribution, particles > 11.3 mm were more abundant (75% average)

than particles < 11.3 mm. XRF scanning yielded As, Cd and Pb concentrations of 3,700

mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 5,300 mg/kg, respectively. In conclusion, it is possible to locate

glass hotspots and excavate them carefully in readiness for metal extraction while

avoiding the need for complicated sorting post-excavation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Leuven, Belgium: European Enhanced Landfill Mining Consortium (EURELCO), 2018
Keywords
Landfill mining, geophysics, waste valorisation, circular economy, glass waste
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82519 (URN)9789082825909 (ISBN)
Conference
4th International Symposium On Enhanced Landfill Mining, Mechelen, Belgium, February 5-6, 2018
Available from: 2019-05-13 Created: 2019-05-13 Last updated: 2019-05-17Bibliographically approved
Mutafela, R., Marques, M. & Hogland, W. (2018). Physico-chemical Characterization of Fine Fraction Materials from a Swedish Glassworks Dumpsite. In: Dr. Konstantinos Moustakas (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management, Naxos, Greece, June 13-16, 2018: . Paper presented at 6th International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management, Naxos, Greece, June 13-16, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physico-chemical Characterization of Fine Fraction Materials from a Swedish Glassworks Dumpsite
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management, Naxos, Greece, June 13-16, 2018 / [ed] Dr. Konstantinos Moustakas, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Waste physico-chemical characteristics and the presence and availability of three metals (As, Cu and Pb) in a glassworks dumpsite were investigated to assess excavated waste handling and storage requirements pre-valorisation. Eight 2 m deep test pits (TPs) were excavated and sampled at 0.5 m depth intervals. The excavated waste was hand-sorted, followed by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) scanning, leaching and HNO3 digestion of the fine fraction (< 10 mm), and assessing results against Swedish EPA regulations. The waste composition was glass > inert > organic > “other” waste, whereas the total metal concentrations (XRF) were Pb > As > Cu. Pb (all TPs) and As (four TPs) were in hazardous levels whereas Cu was not. TDS (2856 ± 467 mg kg-1) and DOC (56.4 ± 21.8 mg kg-1) were lower than the inert, non-hazardous and hazardous waste storage thresholds, whereas F- (10.8 ± 2 mg kg-1) was higher than the inert waste storage threshold. Moisture content was 24.4 ± 11.4% while pH was 7.3 ± 0.8. Leached metal concentrations were Pb > As > Cu, with low metal leachability (0.02% - 0.2%), and the leached amounts were lower than the non-hazardous and hazardous waste storage thresholds, but higher than the inert waste storage thresholds. HNO3 digestion yielded As and Cu concentrations higher than the thresholds for sensitive and less sensitive land uses, and Pb concentrations higher than the non-hazardous waste storage threshold. Metal recovery was 49.3%, 44.2% and 17.9% for Cu, Pb and As respectively. Although the waste was hazardous in nature based on total metal concentrations and Pb concentrations from acid digestion, the leaching was not in hazardous levels due to strongly bound metals in the waste material.

Keywords
Glass waste, fine fraction, heavy metals, landfill mining, waste characterization
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82518 (URN)
Conference
6th International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management, Naxos, Greece, June 13-16, 2018
Available from: 2019-05-13 Created: 2019-05-13 Last updated: 2019-05-15Bibliographically approved
Jani, Y., Mutafela, R., Burlakovs, J. & Hogland, W. (2018). Smålands glassworks: a review of the recently published studies. In: Yahya Jani, Jelena Lundström, Viveka Svensson, William Hogland (Ed.), LinnaeusEco-Tech 2018, 19–21 November 2018, Kalmar, Sweden: Abstract book. Paper presented at The 11th International Conference on Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World, 19–21 November 2018, Kalmar, Sweden (pp. 151). Kalmar: Linnaeus university
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smålands glassworks: a review of the recently published studies
2018 (English)In: LinnaeusEco-Tech 2018, 19–21 November 2018, Kalmar, Sweden: Abstract book / [ed] Yahya Jani, Jelena Lundström, Viveka Svensson, William Hogland, Kalmar: Linnaeus university , 2018, p. 151-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The historical contamination of Smålands glass industry by hazardous concentrations of different trace elements (such as Pb, As, Zn, Cd and others) is a fact that has been approved by many researchers. These studies covered the situation of the glassworks contamination from different angles. However, the recommended solution by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency is landfilling. Dumping these masses means, on the first hand, losing huge amounts of the Earth natural resources as wastes and, on the second hand, losing any future opportunity of recycling or reusing due to mixing these masses with other hazardous wastes generated by different sectors. In this paper, we are trying to review and highlight the results obtained by some of the already published studies in this field to identify the gap and challenges of recycling or reusing options.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kalmar: Linnaeus university, 2018
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-88573 (URN)978-91-88898-28-9 (ISBN)
Conference
The 11th International Conference on Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World, 19–21 November 2018, Kalmar, Sweden
Available from: 2019-08-22 Created: 2019-08-22 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9012-1847

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