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Macedo, António Filipe, Senior LecturerORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3436-2010
Biography [eng]

The focus of my research is visual function assessment, vision rehabilitation and “psycho-socio-economical” problems of vision loss. In the laboratory, my expertise is in eye movements and clinical psychophysics. Other research tools and interests include epidemiology, statistics, programming and psychometric methods.

Publications (10 of 48) Show all publications
Lima Ramos, P., Sousa, I., Santana, R., Morgan, W. H., Gordon, K., Crewe, J., . . . Macedo, A. F. (2020). A review of capture-recapture methods and its possibilities in ophthalmology and vision sciences. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 1-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A review of capture-recapture methods and its possibilities in ophthalmology and vision sciences
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2020 (English)In: Ophthalmic Epidemiology, ISSN 0928-6586, E-ISSN 1744-5086, p. 1-15Article, review/survey (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Epidemiological information is expected to be used to develop key aspects of eye care such as to control and minimise the impact of diseases, to allocate resources, to monitor public health actions, to determine the best treatment options and to forecast the consequence of diseases in populations. Epidemiological studies are expected to provide information about the prevalence and/or incidence of eye diseases or conditions. To determine prevalence is necessary to perform a cross-sectional screening of the population at risk to ascertain the number of cases.The aim of this review is to describe and evaluate capture-recapture methods (or models) to ascertaining the number of individuals with a disease (e.g. diabetic retinopathy) or condition (e.g. vision impairment) in the population.The review covers the fundamental aspects of capture-recapture methods that would enable non-experts in epidemiology to use it in ophthalmic studies. The review provides information about theoretical aspects of the method with examples of studies in ophthalmology in which it has been used. We also provide a problem/solution approach for limitations arising from the lists obtained from registers or other reliable sources.We concluded that capture-recapture models can be considered reliable to estimate the total number of cases with eye conditions using incomplete information from registers. Accordingly, the method may be used to maintain updated epidemiological information about eye conditions helping to tackle the lack of surveillance information in many regions of the globe.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2020
Keywords
prevalence, vision impairment, ophthalmology, optometry, capture-recapture
National Category
Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry; Natural Science, Medicine; Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-94137 (URN)10.1080/09286586.2020.1749286 (DOI)000532204300001 ()
Note

Bibliografiskt granskad

Available from: 2020-05-04 Created: 2020-05-04 Last updated: 2020-06-03
Rodrigues, C., Brandão, A. M., Macedo, A. F. & Baskaran, K. (2020). An eye tracking study of the effect of sensory and price in-store displays. In: Ana Maria Soares & Maher Georges Elmashhara (Ed.), Emotional, sensory, and social dimensions of consumer buying behavior: (pp. 23-49). Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An eye tracking study of the effect of sensory and price in-store displays
2020 (English)In: Emotional, sensory, and social dimensions of consumer buying behavior / [ed] Ana Maria Soares & Maher Georges Elmashhara, Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global, 2020, p. 23-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Using eye tracking, this chapter investigates if the visual attention varies according to the in-store displays message content (price, sensory, and price-sensory). Results show that participants are more responsive to cognitive content messages (price) than affective messages (sensory) alone. Nevertheless, it is demonstrated that participants are prone to devote more time processing in-store displays messages if prices (cognitive stimuli) are combined with sensory messages (affective stimuli), which increases the likelihood of choosing low involvement products. Finally, it was demonstrated that total fixation duration is predictive of low involvement product choice for all home décor products. This study suggests that shoppers might spend more time and effort searching for low involvement products if in-store displays captivate their visual attention and elicit their sensory imagery. Sensory messages can be used by retailers to highlight product intrinsic characteristics. At the same time, they are inducing positive feelings towards low-involvement products.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global, 2020
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Economy, Marketing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-92253 (URN)10.4018/978-1-7998-2220-2.ch002 (DOI)9781799822202 (ISBN)9781799822226 (ISBN)1799822206 (ISBN)9781799822219 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-02-19 Created: 2020-02-19 Last updated: 2020-02-25Bibliographically approved
Hernández-Moreno, L., Senra, H., Lewis, P., Moreno, N., Linhares, J., Santana, R., . . . Macedo, A. F. (2020). Cost‐effectiveness of basic vision rehabilitation (The basic VRS‐effect study): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Ophthalmic & physiological optics, 40(3), 350-364
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost‐effectiveness of basic vision rehabilitation (The basic VRS‐effect study): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
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2020 (English)In: Ophthalmic & physiological optics, ISSN 0275-5408, E-ISSN 1475-1313, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 350-364Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Purpose To investigate the cost-effectiveness of a basic vision rehabilitation service (basic-VRS) in Portugal. We designed a parallel group, randomised controlled trial whose aim is to compare the effects and costs of ?usual low vision care? with a ?basic-VRS intervention? on self-reported visual ability and other psychosocial and health-related quality-of-life outcomes. Methods The trial will recruit participants that meet the following inclusion criteria: (1) visual acuity between 0.4?1.0 logMAR in the better-seeing eye, (2) cause of vision loss is diabetic retinopathy or age-related macular degeneration, (3) 18 years or older and iv) live in the community (not in nursing homes or other type of institution). Participants will be randomised to one of the study arms consisting of immediate intervention and delayed intervention. The delayed intervention group will receive ?usual care? or no intervention in the first 12 weeks. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and retinal structure will be assessed during the study. Results The primary outcome measure is visual ability, which will be evaluated with the Massof Activity Inventory, we expect that the intervention will raise the overall person measure or visual ability. Reading, health-related quality-of-life, anxiety and depression and social support will be also assessed. The analysis will be undertaken on an intention-to-treat basis. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed to provide information about the cost per unit of utility. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention we will adopt the perspective of the healthcare system. Conclusion This study will provide additional evidence about the effects of basic-VRS on self-reported visual ability. Findings from this study should also contribute to better planning of low vision provision and, consequently, may contribute to reduce barriers to basic-VRS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
cost-effectiveness, magnification, quality-of-life, vision impairment, vision rehabilitation, visual ability
National Category
Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-91382 (URN)10.1111/opo.12665 (DOI)000509491000001 ()31989690 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-01-28 Created: 2020-01-28 Last updated: 2020-05-07Bibliographically approved
Pazhoohi, F., Macedo, A. F., Doyle, J. F. & Arantes, J. (2020). Waist-to-Hip Ratio as Supernormal Stimuli: Effect of Contrapposto Pose and Viewing Angle. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 49, 837-847
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Waist-to-Hip Ratio as Supernormal Stimuli: Effect of Contrapposto Pose and Viewing Angle
2020 (English)In: Archives of Sexual Behavior, ISSN 0004-0002, E-ISSN 1573-2800, Vol. 49, p. 837-847Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In women, the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is an indicator of attractiveness, health, youthfulness, and reproductive potential. In the current study, we hypothesized that viewing angle and body postures influence the attractiveness of these forms based on the view dependency of WHR stimuli (vdWHR). Using eye tracking, we quantified the number of fixations and dwell time on 3D images of a female avatar in two different poses (standing and contrapposto) from eight viewing angles incrementing in 45 degrees of rotation. A total of 68 heterosexual individuals (25 men and 43 women) participated in the study. Results showed that the contrapposto pose was perceived as more attractive than the standing pose and that lower vdWHR sides of the stimuli attracted more first fixation, total fixations, and dwell time. Overall, the results supported that WHR is view-dependent and vdWHRs lower than optimal WHRs are supernormal stimuli that may generate peak shifts in responding. Results are discussed in terms of the attractiveness of women’s movements (gaits and dance) and augmented artistic presentations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry; Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-85648 (URN)10.1007/s10508-019-01486-z (DOI)000518483000005 ()31214904 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-06-19 Created: 2019-06-19 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
Soares, A. P., Oliveira, H., Ferreira, M., Comesaña, M., Macedo, A. F., Ferré, P., . . . Fraga, I. (2019). Lexico-syntactic interactions during the processing of temporally ambiguous L2 relative clauses: An eye-tracking study with intermediate and advanced Portuguese-English bilinguals. PLoS ONE, 14(5), 1-27, Article ID e0216779.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lexico-syntactic interactions during the processing of temporally ambiguous L2 relative clauses: An eye-tracking study with intermediate and advanced Portuguese-English bilinguals
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2019 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 1-27, article id e0216779Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is extensive evidence showing that bilinguals activate the lexical and the syntactic representations of both languages in a nonselective way. However, the extent to which the lexical and the syntactic levels of representations interact during second language (L2) sentence processing and how those interactions are modulated by L2 proficiency remain unclear. This paper aimed to directly address these issues by using an online technique (eye-tracking) that is highly sensitive to the lexical and syntactic processes involved in sentence reading. To that purpose, native-speakers of European Portuguese (EP) learning English as L2 at intermediate and advanced levels of proficiency were asked to silently read temporally ambiguous L2 relative clause (RC) sentences disambiguated with a High-Attachment (HA) or Low-Attachment (LA) strategy while their eye-movements were monitored. Since EP and English native speakers differ in the way they process and comprehend this syntactic structure (EP: HA, English: LA), HA preferences were used as a marker of L1 RC syntax interference. Additionally, the cognate status of the complex NP that preceded the RC was manipulated to further analyze how the lexical co-activation of both languages would also affect the syntactic representations of the non-target (L1) language. Results showed cognate facilitation in early and late reading time measures regardless of L2 proficiency, and also that the cognate status of the complex NP impacted L2 reading performance, particularly at lower levels of L2 proficiency. These findings provide compelling evidence for a bilingual reading system that seems to be highly dynamic and interactive not only within each level of processing, but, importantly, across levels of representation. They also suggested that, as the level of L2 proficiency increases, L1 RC syntax interference becomes stronger, in a syntactic parser that seems to operate in a more integrated and nonselective way, with both strategies being equally available to guide L2 reading comprehension. Results are discussed attending to the current models of bilingual syntactic processing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2019
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Neurosciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry; Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-84449 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0216779 (DOI)000469323000023 ()31141531 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85066431671 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-30 Created: 2019-05-30 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Marques, A. P., Macedo, A. F., Lima Ramos, P., Moreno, L. H., Butt, T., Rubin, G. & Santana, R. S. (2019). Productivity Losses and Their Explanatory Factors Amongst People with Impaired Vision. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 26(6), 378-392
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Productivity Losses and Their Explanatory Factors Amongst People with Impaired Vision
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2019 (English)In: Ophthalmic Epidemiology, ISSN 0928-6586, E-ISSN 1744-5086, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 378-392Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To estimate productivity losses amongst people with impaired vision in Portugal and to investigate explanatory factors associated with non-participation in the labour market.

Methods: A total of 546 visually impaired individuals participated in face-to-face interviews. Participants were asked about their workforce participation to determine productivity (employment status questionnaire), their health-related quality of life – HRQoL (EQ-5D) and their visual acuity and visual ability (Activity Inventory). Productivity losses included absenteeism and reduction in workforce participation. Logistic regression was used to determine independent factors associated with participation in the labour market.

Results: From the 546 participants, 50% were retired, 47% were of working age and 3% were students. The employment rate was 28%, and the unemployment rate was 21% for the working age sample. For those of working age, productivity losses were estimated at €1.51 million per year, mean of €5496 per participant. The largest contributor to productivity losses was reduced workforce participation, estimated from 159 early retired or unemployed participants. After controlling for visual acuity and ability, younger individuals, with more years of education, without comorbidities and high HRQoL had a higher probability of being employed.

Conclusions: Our findings show a high unemployment rate and high productivity losses amongst people with impaired vision. The probability of being employed was associated with education, HRQoL and comorbidities. We speculate that promoting education and health through effective visual rehabilitation programs may help to increase participation in the labour market. These findings can inform decisions to intervene to reduce the burden of vision loss.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Keywords
Vision Impairment, productivity losses, patient reported outcomes measures, employment, HRQoL
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-86286 (URN)10.1080/09286586.2019.1632904 (DOI)000474689700001 ()31280630 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-07-10 Created: 2019-07-10 Last updated: 2020-03-11Bibliographically approved
Senra, H., Macedo, A. F., Nunes, N., Balaskas, K., Aslam, T. & Costa, E. (2019). Psychological and Psychosocial Interventions for Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Review. The American journal of geriatric psychiatry, 27(8), 755-773
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychological and Psychosocial Interventions for Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Review
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2019 (English)In: The American journal of geriatric psychiatry, ISSN 1064-7481, E-ISSN 1545-7214, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 755-773Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose To review the current literature on psychosocial and psychological interventions to prevent and treat depression and anxiety in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods We conducted a systematic review of literature evaluating psychosocial and psychological interventions for depression and anxiety in AMD patients. Primary searches of PubMed, Cochrane library, EMBASE, Global Health, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Science Direct were conducted to include all papers published until April 21st. 2018. Results Of a total of 398 citations retrieved, we selected 12 eligible studies published between 2002 and 2016. We found 9 randomized controlled trials (RCT), and 3 non-randomised intervention (NRI) studies. RCT studies suggested that interventions using group self-management techniques, and individual behavioural activation plus low vision rehabilitation can be effective to treat and prevent depression in AMD patients, and one study suggested that a stepped-care intervention using cognitive-behavioural techniques can be effective to manage anxiety and depression over time. NRI studies highlighted a positive effect of self-help and emotion-focused interventions to reduce depression. Conclusions Clinical practice with AMD patients can rely on some tailored cognitive-behavioural therapeutic protocols to improve patients’ mental health, but further clinical trials will generate the necessary evidence-based knowledge to improve those therapeutic techniques and offer additional tailored interventions for AMD patients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Psychosocial Intervention, Psychological Intervention, Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Depression, Anxiety, Vision Disorders, Systematic Review
National Category
Psychology Geriatrics Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry; Medicine, Gerontology; Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81044 (URN)10.1016/j.jagp.2019.03.001 (DOI)000475925000001 ()31005495 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85064323190 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Baskaran, K., Macedo, A. F. & Calabrèse, A. (2019). Rater and algorithm data of maximum reading speed (MRS) and critical print size (CPS) of 101 low vision participants..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rater and algorithm data of maximum reading speed (MRS) and critical print size (CPS) of 101 low vision participants.
2019 (English)Data set, Primary data
National Category
Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82621 (URN)
Available from: 2019-05-20 Created: 2019-05-20 Last updated: 2019-05-22
Baskaran, K., Macedo, A. F., He, Y., Hernandez-Moreno, L., Queirós, T., Mansfield, J. S. & Calabrèse, A. (2019). Scoring reading parameters: An inter-rater reliability study using the MNREAD chart. PLoS ONE, 14(6), 1-14, Article ID e0216775.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scoring reading parameters: An inter-rater reliability study using the MNREAD chart
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2019 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 1-14, article id e0216775Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose First, to evaluate inter-rater reliability when human raters estimate the reading performance of visually impaired individuals using the MNREAD acuity chart. Second, to evaluate the agreement between computer-based scoring algorithms and compare them with human rating. Methods Reading performance was measured for 101 individuals with low vision, using the Portuguese version of the MNREAD test. Seven raters estimated the maximum reading speed (MRS) and critical print size (CPS) of each individual MNREAD curve. MRS and CPS were also calculated automatically for each curve using two different algorithms: the original standard deviation method (SDev) and a non-linear mixed effects (NLME) modeling. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to estimate absolute agreement between raters and/or algorithms. Results Absolute agreement between raters was ‘excellent’ for MRS (ICC = 0.97; 95%CI [0.96, 0.98]) and ‘moderate’ to ‘good’ for CPS (ICC = 0.77; 95%CI [0.69, 0.83]). For CPS, inter-rater reliability was poorer among less experienced raters (ICC = 0.70; 95%CI [0.57, 0.80]) when compared to experienced ones (ICC = 0.82; 95%CI [0.76, 0.88]). Absolute agreement between the two algorithms was ‘excellent’ for MRS (ICC = 0.96; 95%CI [0.91, 0.98]). For CPS, the best possible agreement was found for CPS defined as the print size sustaining 80% of MRS (ICC = 0.77; 95%CI [0.68, 0.84]). Absolute agreement between raters and automated methods was ‘excellent’ for MRS (ICC = 0.96; 95% CI [0.88, 0.98] for SDev; ICC = 0.97; 95% CI [0.95, 0.98] for NLME). For CPS, absolute agreement between raters and SDev ranged from ‘poor’ to ‘good’ (ICC = 0.66; 95% CI [0.3, 0.80]), while agreement between raters and NLME was ‘good’ (ICC = 0.83; 95% CI [0.76, 0.88]). Conclusion For MRS, inter-rater reliability is excellent, even considering the possibility of noisy and/or incomplete data collected in low-vision individuals. For CPS, inter-rater reliability is lower. This may be problematic, for instance in the context of multisite investigations or follow-up examinations. The NLME method showed better agreement with the raters than the SDev method for both reading parameters. Setting up consensual guidelines to deal with ambiguous curves may help improve reliability. While the exact definition of CPS should be chosen on a case-by-case basis depending on the clinician or researcher’s motivations, evidence suggests that estimating CPS as the smallest print size sustaining about 80% of MRS would increase inter-rater reliability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2019
Keywords
MNREAD acuity chart, visual impairment, algorithms
National Category
Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-84759 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0216775 (DOI)000470658500005 ()31173587 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85067111247 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-08 Created: 2019-06-08 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Pazhoohi, F., Garza, R., Doyle, J. F., Macedo, A. F. & Arantes, J. (2019). Sex Differences for Preferences of Shoulder to Hip Ratio in Men and Women: an Eye Tracking Study. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 5(4), 405-415
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sex Differences for Preferences of Shoulder to Hip Ratio in Men and Women: an Eye Tracking Study
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2019 (English)In: Evolutionary Psychological Science, E-ISSN 2198-9885, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 405-415Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Shoulder to hip ratio (SHR) is a sexually dimorphic trait in humans, yet no previous study has investigated the gazing behavior and perceived physical attractiveness of men and women in relation to men and women’s SHRs. Men and women are attentive to men’s upper body and consider higher SHRs as cues to masculinity, strength, and formidability. Moreover, while women’s shoulder width varies from one individual to another, to our knowledge no previous study has investigated perceived attractiveness and eye movement in relation to women’s SHR. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated attractiveness ratings and eye movements of both men and women to front- and back-posed male and female stimuli varying in SHR. Our results showed that men prefer more masculine ratios for men and less masculine ratios for women. However, the results also showed that women preferred an intermediate SHR for both men and women in the back view while their preference in the front view is not influenced by SHR. Eye movements showed that men viewed the chest region of other men in the front and back views of stimuli, and they had longer dwell time on chests of male stimuli with higher SHRs, while no significant difference was found for dwell time on chests of female stimuli varying in SHR. Also, no differences were observed for female participants in dwell time, for either chest regions of SHRs of male stimuli or for the chests of female stimuli. Altogether, the results of this study suggest that men more than women are attentive to variations in SHRs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Shoulder-to-hip ratio (SHR), Physical attractiveness, Eye tracking, Sex differences, Formidability
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology; Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-86098 (URN)10.1007/s40806-019-00198-w (DOI)
Available from: 2019-07-01 Created: 2019-07-01 Last updated: 2019-11-21Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3436-2010

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