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Macedo, António Filipe, Senior LecturerORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3436-2010
Biography [eng]

The focus of my research is visual function assessment, vision rehabilitation and “psycho-socio-economical” problems of vision loss. In the laboratory, my expertise is in eye movements and clinical psychophysics. Other research tools and interests include epidemiology, statistics, programming and psychometric methods.

Publications (10 of 45) Show all publications
Soares, A. P., Oliveira, H., Ferreira, M., Comesaña, M., Macedo, A. F., Ferré, P., . . . Fraga, I. (2019). Lexico-syntactic interactions during the processing of temporally ambiguous L2 relative clauses: An eye-tracking study with intermediate and advanced Portuguese-English bilinguals. PLoS ONE, 14(5), 1-27, Article ID e0216779.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lexico-syntactic interactions during the processing of temporally ambiguous L2 relative clauses: An eye-tracking study with intermediate and advanced Portuguese-English bilinguals
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2019 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 1-27, article id e0216779Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is extensive evidence showing that bilinguals activate the lexical and the syntactic representations of both languages in a nonselective way. However, the extent to which the lexical and the syntactic levels of representations interact during second language (L2) sentence processing and how those interactions are modulated by L2 proficiency remain unclear. This paper aimed to directly address these issues by using an online technique (eye-tracking) that is highly sensitive to the lexical and syntactic processes involved in sentence reading. To that purpose, native-speakers of European Portuguese (EP) learning English as L2 at intermediate and advanced levels of proficiency were asked to silently read temporally ambiguous L2 relative clause (RC) sentences disambiguated with a High-Attachment (HA) or Low-Attachment (LA) strategy while their eye-movements were monitored. Since EP and English native speakers differ in the way they process and comprehend this syntactic structure (EP: HA, English: LA), HA preferences were used as a marker of L1 RC syntax interference. Additionally, the cognate status of the complex NP that preceded the RC was manipulated to further analyze how the lexical co-activation of both languages would also affect the syntactic representations of the non-target (L1) language. Results showed cognate facilitation in early and late reading time measures regardless of L2 proficiency, and also that the cognate status of the complex NP impacted L2 reading performance, particularly at lower levels of L2 proficiency. These findings provide compelling evidence for a bilingual reading system that seems to be highly dynamic and interactive not only within each level of processing, but, importantly, across levels of representation. They also suggested that, as the level of L2 proficiency increases, L1 RC syntax interference becomes stronger, in a syntactic parser that seems to operate in a more integrated and nonselective way, with both strategies being equally available to guide L2 reading comprehension. Results are discussed attending to the current models of bilingual syntactic processing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2019
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Neurosciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry; Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-84449 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0216779 (DOI)000469323000023 ()31141531 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85066431671 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-30 Created: 2019-05-30 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Marques, A. P., Macedo, A. F., Lima Ramos, P., Moreno, L. H., Butt, T., Rubin, G. & Santana, R. S. (2019). Productivity Losses and Their Explanatory Factors Amongst People with Impaired Vision. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 1-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Productivity Losses and Their Explanatory Factors Amongst People with Impaired Vision
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2019 (English)In: Ophthalmic Epidemiology, ISSN 0928-6586, E-ISSN 1744-5086, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To estimate productivity losses amongst people with impaired vision in Portugal and to investigate explanatory factors associated with non-participation in the labour market.

Methods: A total of 546 visually impaired individuals participated in face-to-face interviews. Participants were asked about their workforce participation to determine productivity (employment status questionnaire), their health-related quality of life – HRQoL (EQ-5D) and their visual acuity and visual ability (Activity Inventory). Productivity losses included absenteeism and reduction in workforce participation. Logistic regression was used to determine independent factors associated with participation in the labour market.

Results: From the 546 participants, 50% were retired, 47% were of working age and 3% were students. The employment rate was 28%, and the unemployment rate was 21% for the working age sample. For those of working age, productivity losses were estimated at €1.51 million per year, mean of €5496 per participant. The largest contributor to productivity losses was reduced workforce participation, estimated from 159 early retired or unemployed participants. After controlling for visual acuity and ability, younger individuals, with more years of education, without comorbidities and high HRQoL had a higher probability of being employed.

Conclusions: Our findings show a high unemployment rate and high productivity losses amongst people with impaired vision. The probability of being employed was associated with education, HRQoL and comorbidities. We speculate that promoting education and health through effective visual rehabilitation programs may help to increase participation in the labour market. These findings can inform decisions to intervene to reduce the burden of vision loss.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Keywords
Vision Impairment, productivity losses, patient reported outcomes measures, employment, HRQoL
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-86286 (URN)10.1080/09286586.2019.1632904 (DOI)000474689700001 ()31280630 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-07-10 Created: 2019-07-10 Last updated: 2019-08-01
Senra, H., Macedo, A. F., Nunes, N., Balaskas, K., Aslam, T. & Costa, E. (2019). Psychological and Psychosocial Interventions for Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Review. The American journal of geriatric psychiatry, 27(8), 755-773
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychological and Psychosocial Interventions for Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Review
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2019 (English)In: The American journal of geriatric psychiatry, ISSN 1064-7481, E-ISSN 1545-7214, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 755-773Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose To review the current literature on psychosocial and psychological interventions to prevent and treat depression and anxiety in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods We conducted a systematic review of literature evaluating psychosocial and psychological interventions for depression and anxiety in AMD patients. Primary searches of PubMed, Cochrane library, EMBASE, Global Health, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Science Direct were conducted to include all papers published until April 21st. 2018. Results Of a total of 398 citations retrieved, we selected 12 eligible studies published between 2002 and 2016. We found 9 randomized controlled trials (RCT), and 3 non-randomised intervention (NRI) studies. RCT studies suggested that interventions using group self-management techniques, and individual behavioural activation plus low vision rehabilitation can be effective to treat and prevent depression in AMD patients, and one study suggested that a stepped-care intervention using cognitive-behavioural techniques can be effective to manage anxiety and depression over time. NRI studies highlighted a positive effect of self-help and emotion-focused interventions to reduce depression. Conclusions Clinical practice with AMD patients can rely on some tailored cognitive-behavioural therapeutic protocols to improve patients’ mental health, but further clinical trials will generate the necessary evidence-based knowledge to improve those therapeutic techniques and offer additional tailored interventions for AMD patients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Psychosocial Intervention, Psychological Intervention, Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Depression, Anxiety, Vision Disorders, Systematic Review
National Category
Psychology Geriatrics Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry; Medicine, Gerontology; Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81044 (URN)10.1016/j.jagp.2019.03.001 (DOI)000475925000001 ()31005495 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85064323190 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Baskaran, K., Macedo, A. F. & Calabrèse, A. (2019). Rater and algorithm data of maximum reading speed (MRS) and critical print size (CPS) of 101 low vision participants..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rater and algorithm data of maximum reading speed (MRS) and critical print size (CPS) of 101 low vision participants.
2019 (English)Data set, Primary data
National Category
Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82621 (URN)
Available from: 2019-05-20 Created: 2019-05-20 Last updated: 2019-05-22
Baskaran, K., Macedo, A. F., He, Y., Hernandez-Moreno, L., Queirós, T., Mansfield, J. S. & Calabrèse, A. (2019). Scoring reading parameters: An inter-rater reliability study using the MNREAD chart. PLoS ONE, 14(6), 1-14, Article ID e0216775.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scoring reading parameters: An inter-rater reliability study using the MNREAD chart
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2019 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 1-14, article id e0216775Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose First, to evaluate inter-rater reliability when human raters estimate the reading performance of visually impaired individuals using the MNREAD acuity chart. Second, to evaluate the agreement between computer-based scoring algorithms and compare them with human rating. Methods Reading performance was measured for 101 individuals with low vision, using the Portuguese version of the MNREAD test. Seven raters estimated the maximum reading speed (MRS) and critical print size (CPS) of each individual MNREAD curve. MRS and CPS were also calculated automatically for each curve using two different algorithms: the original standard deviation method (SDev) and a non-linear mixed effects (NLME) modeling. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to estimate absolute agreement between raters and/or algorithms. Results Absolute agreement between raters was ‘excellent’ for MRS (ICC = 0.97; 95%CI [0.96, 0.98]) and ‘moderate’ to ‘good’ for CPS (ICC = 0.77; 95%CI [0.69, 0.83]). For CPS, inter-rater reliability was poorer among less experienced raters (ICC = 0.70; 95%CI [0.57, 0.80]) when compared to experienced ones (ICC = 0.82; 95%CI [0.76, 0.88]). Absolute agreement between the two algorithms was ‘excellent’ for MRS (ICC = 0.96; 95%CI [0.91, 0.98]). For CPS, the best possible agreement was found for CPS defined as the print size sustaining 80% of MRS (ICC = 0.77; 95%CI [0.68, 0.84]). Absolute agreement between raters and automated methods was ‘excellent’ for MRS (ICC = 0.96; 95% CI [0.88, 0.98] for SDev; ICC = 0.97; 95% CI [0.95, 0.98] for NLME). For CPS, absolute agreement between raters and SDev ranged from ‘poor’ to ‘good’ (ICC = 0.66; 95% CI [0.3, 0.80]), while agreement between raters and NLME was ‘good’ (ICC = 0.83; 95% CI [0.76, 0.88]). Conclusion For MRS, inter-rater reliability is excellent, even considering the possibility of noisy and/or incomplete data collected in low-vision individuals. For CPS, inter-rater reliability is lower. This may be problematic, for instance in the context of multisite investigations or follow-up examinations. The NLME method showed better agreement with the raters than the SDev method for both reading parameters. Setting up consensual guidelines to deal with ambiguous curves may help improve reliability. While the exact definition of CPS should be chosen on a case-by-case basis depending on the clinician or researcher’s motivations, evidence suggests that estimating CPS as the smallest print size sustaining about 80% of MRS would increase inter-rater reliability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2019
Keywords
MNREAD acuity chart, visual impairment, algorithms
National Category
Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-84759 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0216775 (DOI)000470658500005 ()31173587 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85067111247 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-08 Created: 2019-06-08 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Pazhoohi, F., Garza, R., Doyle, J. F., Macedo, A. F. & Arantes, J. (2019). Sex Differences for Preferences of Shoulder to Hip Ratio in Men and Women: an Eye Tracking Study. Evolutionary Psychological Science
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sex Differences for Preferences of Shoulder to Hip Ratio in Men and Women: an Eye Tracking Study
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2019 (English)In: Evolutionary Psychological Science, E-ISSN 2198-9885Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Shoulder to hip ratio (SHR) is a sexually dimorphic trait in humans, yet no previous study has investigated the gazing behavior and perceived physical attractiveness of men and women in relation to men and women’s SHRs. Men and women are attentive to men’s upper body and consider higher SHRs as cues to masculinity, strength, and formidability. Moreover, while women’s shoulder width varies from one individual to another, to our knowledge no previous study has investigated perceived attractiveness and eye movement in relation to women’s SHR. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated attractiveness ratings and eye movements of both men and women to front- and back-posed male and female stimuli varying in SHR. Our results showed that men prefer more masculine ratios for men and less masculine ratios for women. However, the results also showed that women preferred an intermediate SHR for both men and women in the back view while their preference in the front view is not influenced by SHR. Eye movements showed that men viewed the chest region of other men in the front and back views of stimuli, and they had longer dwell time on chests of male stimuli with higher SHRs, while no significant difference was found for dwell time on chests of female stimuli varying in SHR. Also, no differences were observed for female participants in dwell time, for either chest regions of SHRs of male stimuli or for the chests of female stimuli. Altogether, the results of this study suggest that men more than women are attentive to variations in SHRs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Shoulder-to-hip ratio (SHR), Physical attractiveness, Eye tracking, Sex differences, Formidability
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology; Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-86098 (URN)10.1007/s40806-019-00198-w (DOI)
Available from: 2019-07-01 Created: 2019-07-01 Last updated: 2019-07-24
Pazhoohi, F., Macedo, A. F., Doyle, J. F. & Arantes, J. (2019). Waist-to-Hip Ratio as Supernormal Stimuli: Effect of Contrapposto Pose and Viewing Angle. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Waist-to-Hip Ratio as Supernormal Stimuli: Effect of Contrapposto Pose and Viewing Angle
2019 (English)In: Archives of Sexual Behavior, ISSN 0004-0002, E-ISSN 1573-2800, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In women, the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is an indicator of attractiveness, health, youthfulness, and reproductive potential. In the current study, we hypothesized that viewing angle and body postures influence the attractiveness of these forms based on the view dependency of WHR stimuli (vdWHR). Using eye tracking, we quantified the number of fixations and dwell time on 3D images of a female avatar in two different poses (standing and contrapposto) from eight viewing angles incrementing in 45 degrees of rotation. A total of 68 heterosexual individuals (25 men and 43 women) participated in the study. Results showed that the contrapposto pose was perceived as more attractive than the standing pose and that lower vdWHR sides of the stimuli attracted more first fixation, total fixations, and dwell time. Overall, the results supported that WHR is view-dependent and vdWHRs lower than optimal WHRs are supernormal stimuli that may generate peak shifts in responding. Results are discussed in terms of the attractiveness of women’s movements (gaits and dance) and augmented artistic presentations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry; Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-85648 (URN)10.1007/s10508-019-01486-z (DOI)
Available from: 2019-06-19 Created: 2019-06-19 Last updated: 2019-07-24
Hernandez-Moreno, L., Moreno Perdomo, N., Aleman, T. S., Baskaran, K. & Macedo, A. F. (2018). Absent Foveal Pit, Also Known as Fovea Plana, in a Child without Associated Ocular or Systemic Findings. Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine, 1-5, Article ID 2146826.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Absent Foveal Pit, Also Known as Fovea Plana, in a Child without Associated Ocular or Systemic Findings
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2018 (English)In: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine, ISSN 2090-6722, E-ISSN 2090-6730, p. 1-5, article id 2146826Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this report is to describe a case of bilateral foveal hypoplasia in the absence of other ophthalmological or systemic manifestations. We characterize the case of a 9-year-old Caucasian male who underwent full ophthalmologic examination, including functional measures of vision and structural measurements of the eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 0.50 logMAR in the right eye and 0.40 logMAR in the left eye. Ophthalmoscopy revealed a lack of foveal reflex that was further investigated. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) confirmed the absence of foveal depression (pit). OCT images demonstrated the abnormal structure of retina in a region in which we expected a fovea; these findings were decisive to determine the cause of reduced acuity in the child.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2018
National Category
Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77000 (URN)10.1155/2018/2146826 (DOI)000440906700001 ()30147974 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-07-26 Created: 2018-07-26 Last updated: 2019-02-27Bibliographically approved
Pazhoohi, F., Doyle, J. F., Macedo, A. F. & Arantes, J. (2018). Arching the Back (Lumbar Curvature) as a Female Sexual Proceptivity Signal: an Eye-Tracking Study. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 4(2), 158-165
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arching the Back (Lumbar Curvature) as a Female Sexual Proceptivity Signal: an Eye-Tracking Study
2018 (English)In: Evolutionary Psychological Science, ISSN 2198-9885, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 158-165Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is common in studies of human mate preference to have participants judge the attractiveness of photographs in which models adopt a neutral facial expression or a neutral body posture. However, it is unlikely that humans adopt neutral expressions and postures in normal social circumstances. One way in which posture can vary is in the curvature of the lower spine. In some non-human animals, a “lordotic” posture (in which the lower spine is curved towards the belly) is associated in females with readiness to mate. In humans, this posture may serve a similar function, attracting heterosexual men. In this study, participants were presented with computer-generated images of female bodies in which the back curvature was systematically manipulated. The result showed that small changes in lumbar curvature are associated with changes in the perception of attractiveness. Specifically, the result showed that there is a relationship between the range of the back curvatures used in this study and attractiveness, such that increasing the curvature increased the perception of attractiveness. Additionally, as the curvature increased, participants looked longer and fixated more on the hip region of the female bodies. This paper argues that the attractiveness of women in lordotic posture is due to a conserved mechanism across the taxa which signals proceptivity to men.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Lumbar curvature; Lordosis; Proceptive behavior; Receptivity; Sexual behavior; Eye tracking
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry; Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-68606 (URN)10.1007/s40806-017-0123-7 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-11-03 Created: 2017-11-03 Last updated: 2018-05-14Bibliographically approved
Macedo, A. F., Santos, D., Hernandez-Moreno, L., Leitao, M., Latham, K. & Linhares, J. (2018). Exploring barriers to physical activity faced by people with vision loss. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the Association-for-Research-in-Vision-and-Ophthalmology (ARVO), APR 29-MAY 03, 2018, Honolulu, HI. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 59(9)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring barriers to physical activity faced by people with vision loss
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2018 (English)In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, no 9Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
National Category
Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-78106 (URN)000442912503008 ()
Conference
Annual Meeting of the Association-for-Research-in-Vision-and-Ophthalmology (ARVO), APR 29-MAY 03, 2018, Honolulu, HI
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2018-10-01Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3436-2010

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