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Promoting Semantic Interoperability of Contextual Metadata for Learner Generated Digital Content
Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM. (CeLeKT)
2010 (Engelska)Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Technological advancements in computing have led to a reality where computational devices are more mobile, connected and context aware than ever before. Several of these devices are primarily designed for or support the creation of digital content via built-in or attachable sensors, e.g. mobile phones. The portability and connectivity of mobile devices make them suitable tools to support learning experiences; their features can be used to generate digital content and metadata related to the particular learning situation. These types of objects, referred to as Emerging Learning Objects (ELOs), introduce challenges in terms of metadata enrichment as their metadata should reflect aspects related to the particular learning situation in which they were created to be properly indexed. A claim made in this thesis is that semantic interoperability of ELO metadata is an integral concern that needs to be explored in order to benefit from these metadata outside custom tailored applications and systems. Therefore, the main research question explored in this thesis focuses on the ability to enrich ELOs with semantically interoperable contextual metadata.

This thesis is comprised of a collection of five peer-reviewed articles that describe interrelated stages of research in pursuit of an answer to the main research question. The overall research process consisted of three main stages: a literature review; the development a system artefact; and the exploration of the technological solution (Linked Data) applied in the system artefact. An instantiation of the Unified Process guided the development of the system artefact.

The outcomes of these activities provide insights on how to perceive the relationship between context and contextual metadata, as well as properties related to a particular technological solution, namely data distribution, flexibility and expressivity. In order to decouple the findings from a particular instance of technology, a generalization effort in the analysis identified two generic factors that affect the semantic interoperability of metadata: the level of ontological consensus and the level of metadata expressivity. The main conclusion of this thesis is that until the constituent parts of context are agreed upon, metadata expressivity is an important feature for promoting semantic interoperability of ELO contextual metadata.Technological advancements in computing have led to a reality where computational devices are more mobile, connected and context aware than ever before. Several of these devices are primarily designed for or support the creation of digital content via built-in or attachable sensors, e.g. mobile phones. The portability and connectivity of mobile devices make them suitable tools to support learning experiences; their features can be used to generate digital content and metadata related to the particular learning situation. These types of objects, referred to as Emerging Learning Objects (ELOs), introduce challenges in terms of metadata enrichment as their metadata should reflect aspects related to the particular learning situation in which they were created to be properly indexed. A claim made in this thesis is that semantic interoperability of ELO metadata is an integral concern that needs to be explored in order to benefit from these metadata outside custom tailored applications and systems. Therefore, the main research question explored in this thesis focuses on the ability to enrich ELOs with semantically interoperable contextual metadata. This thesis is comprised of a collection of five peer-reviewed articles that describe interrelated stages of research in pursuit of an answer to the main research question. The overall research process consisted of three main stages: a literature review; the development a system artefact; and the exploration of the technological solution (Linked Data) applied in the system artefact. An instantiation of the Unified Process guided the development of the system artefact.The outcomes of these activities provide insights on how to perceive the relationship between context and contextual metadata, as well as properties related to a particular technological solution, namely data distribution, flexibility and expressivity. In order to decouple the findings from a particular instance of technology, a generalization effort in the analysis identified two generic factors that affect the semantic interoperability of metadata: the level of ontological consensus and the level of metadata expressivity. The main conclusion of this thesis is that until the constituent parts of context are agreed upon, metadata expressivity is an important feature for promoting semantic interoperability of ELO contextual metadata.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Linnéuniversitetet , 2010.
Nyckelord [en]
metadata, contextual metadata, user-generated content
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Forskningsämne
Data- och informationsvetenskap, Medieteknik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-8453OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-8453DiVA, id: diva2:351785
Presentation
2010-08-25, D1136, Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, 09:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2010-09-16 Skapad: 2010-09-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-12Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Making Use of User-Generated Content and Contextual Metadata Collected during Ubiquitous Learning Activities
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Making Use of User-Generated Content and Contextual Metadata Collected during Ubiquitous Learning Activities
2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: Eighth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, IEEE Press, 2008, s. 606-610Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

During the last years significant research efforts have been conducted looking at how to standardize digital educational content. Due to better connectivity and computational power of mobile devices, new opportunities have emerged for collecting user-generated data based on the context and the environment where the content has been generated. While metadata standards for learning objects such as IEEE LOM make it possible to annotate digital content with pre-defined metadata tags, the ability to store custom user-generated or contextual metadata is not yet fully supported. The need for developing a flexible solution to deal with these problems motivated the design of our activity controller system (ACS), a rapid prototyping system and a task manager, which interprets, reacts to and stores contextual metadata and content extracted during learning activities. This paper presents how ACS facilitates coordination and reusability of user generated data, which we believe is as a valuable feature compared with existing standards and initiatives.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE Press, 2008
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Forskningsämne
Data- och informationsvetenskap, Medieteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:vxu:diva-3680 (URN)10.1109/ICALT.2008.169 (DOI)978-0-7695-3167-0 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2008-12-08 Skapad: 2008-12-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Contextual Metadata in Practice
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Contextual Metadata in Practice
2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: The First International Conference on Advances in Multimedia, 2009, s. 12-17Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

This article aims to survey the scene of contextual metadata annotation of digital content. This is performed through a literature review of current research, looking closer at formal context models, contextual metadata gathering and contextual metadata formalisation respectively. The findings of these efforts indicate that the reviewed context models have three elements of context in common. However, these formal models are inconsistent with the contextual metadata gathered in approaches described in the reviewed literature, in which location metadata are the most common. Furthermore, contextual metadata gathered in these initiatives end up in a variety of data structures. One reason for the dominance of location metadata might be the clear understanding of their ontological dimension. Therefore, the author introduces the notion of ontological dimensions in the area of contextual metadata. The proposed notion of conceiving contextual metadata as a set of ontological dimensions makes it possible to divide the endeavour of formalising elements of context into manageable information chunks. Through identifying and reaching a consensus of the constituent parts of these dimensions, it is the belief of the author that we are well on our way towards improved interoperability, metadata interpretability and digital content reusability facilitated by contextual metadata.

Nyckelord
contextual metadata, metadata annotation, digital content reusability
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Forskningsämne
Data- och informationsvetenskap, Medieteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:vxu:diva-6809 (URN)10.1109/MMEDIA.2009.10 (DOI)978-0-7695-3693-4 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2010-01-20 Skapad: 2010-01-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-12Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Pinetree: A Learning Content Repository Based on Semantic Web Technologies
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Pinetree: A Learning Content Repository Based on Semantic Web Technologies
2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Ninth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, IEEE Press, 2009, s. 522-526Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

During the last few years, mobile devices such as cellular phones and PDAs have become sophisticated tools for creating digital content. Moreover, their built-in or attachable sensor capabilities make it possible to derive metadata that denote the context of the user. The challenge of annotating digital content with contextual metadata is a central part of our current research efforts and the main rationale for the development of Pinetree. Pinetree is a learning content repository based on Semantic Web technologies. The aim of the article is to explore the utility of using RDF (Resource Description Framework) as a data model in a learning content repository. We describe the different components of Pinetree and illustrate its use in a specific learning scenario. Our initial results indicate that a learning content repository based on RDF can be a flexible solution for digital content storage in terms of metadata expressivity, interoperability and data distribution.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE Press, 2009
Nyckelord
Content repository, metadata, metadata annotation, Semantic Web
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Forskningsämne
Data- och informationsvetenskap, Medieteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:vxu:diva-6810 (URN)10.1109/ICALT.2009.183 (DOI)978-0-7695-3711-5 (ISBN)
Konferens
Ninth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, 2009. ICALT 2009, Riga, 15-17 July, 2009
Tillgänglig från: 2010-01-20 Skapad: 2010-01-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-12Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Using contextual metadata for enhanced reusability of mobile media objects
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Using contextual metadata for enhanced reusability of mobile media objects
2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Sharing Experiences with Social Mobile Media: Proceedings of the International Workshop in conjunction with MobileHCI 2009, 2009, s. 72-79Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Mobile phones are becoming “sensor packed devices”. With this the possibilities for acquiring context has widened. As a result of this, new computing paradigms are emerging. Moreover, mobile phones enable anyone in their possession to be a potential creator of mobile media objects. All this is having impact in the way human activities are performed and has changed the “social mobile media” landscape. The emerging mobile media objects are usually created in an unanticipated way. The challenge in these settings is the interoperability and reusability of these emerging mobile media objects. Since there is no formal control over the creation of these mobile media objects, we consider that use of contextual metadata will be beneficial for addressing the issue of reusability. Inspired from our dimensional model of context we introduce a conceptual scheme for enhancing the reusability of mobile media objects. This scheme is based upon open standards technologies such as XML, XMLSchema, RDF and RDF Schema. To illustrate the usefulness of depicting emerging mobile media objects with contextual metadata, we introduce an experimental scenario in the learning domain.

Nyckelord
mobile devices, sensors, context, mobile media objects, reusability
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Forskningsämne
Data- och informationsvetenskap, Medieteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:vxu:diva-6811 (URN)978-952-15-2209-3 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2010-01-20 Skapad: 2010-01-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-20Bibliografiskt granskad
5. Enhancing Emerging Learning Objects with Contextual Metadata Using the Linked Data Approach
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Enhancing Emerging Learning Objects with Contextual Metadata Using the Linked Data Approach
2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: 2010 6th IEEE International Conference on Wireless, Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies in Education (WMUTE), IEEE Press, 2010, s. 50-56Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

The latest developments in mobile technologies have increased the possibility for users to generate digital content at any location and time. In this paper we present our current research efforts related to the ability to enhance digital content that emerge when mobile devices are used to support different learning activities. We believe that these emerging learning objects should be enriched with contextual characteristics in a machine interoperable and interpretable manner in order to preserve the meaning, or semantics, of those features.  There are a number of approaches to address this problem but in the present article we focus on exploring the potential added value of using Linked Data to depict emerging learning objects with contextual metadata. Our preliminary findings indicate that Linked Data offers a flexible approach for supporting important aspects of digital content related to data linkage, data merge and semantic interoperability. The latest developments in mobile technologies have increased the possibility for users to generate digital content at any location and time. In this paper we present our current research efforts related to the ability to enhance digital content that emerge when mobile devices are used to support different learning activities. We believe that these emerging learning objects should be enriched with contextual characteristics in a machine interoperable and interpretable manner in order to preserve the meaning, or semantics, of those features.  There are a number of approaches to address this problem but in the present article we focus on exploring the potential added value of using Linked Data to depict emerging learning objects with contextual metadata. Our preliminary findings indicate that Linked Data offers a flexible approach for supporting important aspects of digital content related to data linkage, data merge and semantic interoperability.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE Press, 2010
Nyckelord
Digital content metadata, Linked Data, Semantic Web, Emerging Learning Objects
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Forskningsämne
Data- och informationsvetenskap, Medieteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-7101 (URN)10.1109/WMUTE.2010.42 (DOI)2-s2.0-77954512662 (Scopus ID)978-0-7695-3992-8 (ISBN)
Konferens
2010 6th IEEE International Conference on Wireless, Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies in Education (WMUTE),12-16 April 2010, Kaohsiung
Tillgänglig från: 2010-08-11 Skapad: 2010-08-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-20Bibliografiskt granskad

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