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Applying a decision-making framework for resolving conflicts when selecting windows and blinds
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1835-7158
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0130-3356
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4405-1056
2019 (English)In: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 382-401Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The selection of the most appropriate window and blind design is a challenging task due to the existence of potential conflicts between visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. Resolving these conflicts relies on a trade-off window and blind design. This research applied a decision-making framework to select a trade-off window and blind design for an office room in Sweden. The decision-making framework was developed based on integrating the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II and the analytical hierarchy process. The first step in the application of the framework was to generate a model of the office room using EnergyPlus. Six types of window and four types of blind; an internal venetian blind, an internal roller curtain, an external venetian blind and an external overhang panel, were modelled in EnergyPlus. The second step was to run an optimisation using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II. For this purpose, various window and blind design variables were specified in modeFRONTIER platform. The third and last step in the application of the decision-making framework was to select a trade-off window and blind design using analytical hierarchy process. The results show the strength of the decision-making framework in selecting a trade-off design, and thereby the ability to resolve conflicts through intelligent use of simulation in analyzing big-data in built environment, energy and cost sectors. Since, the computation and processing power for performing simulations is constantly increasing, architects and designers can exploit the decision-making framework and locate a trade-off design in a relatively short period of time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019. Vol. 15, no 5, p. 382-401
Keywords [en]
Decision-making, big data, optimisation, non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II, analytical hierarchy process, trade-off design
National Category
Architectural Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Sustainable Built Environment
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79039DOI: 10.1080/17452007.2018.1550383ISI: 000482063700005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-79039DiVA, id: diva2:1267358
Projects
ProWood
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20130245Available from: 2018-12-01 Created: 2018-12-01 Last updated: 2019-12-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. A decision-making framework for enhancing client well-being: When designing windows and blinds
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A decision-making framework for enhancing client well-being: When designing windows and blinds
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The current state of window and blind design moves beyond evaluating a single function, such as energy consumption, to include a human perspective in architectural design approach to create value. A current thought among architects and design professionals is that the highest value outcomes can be obtained when any architectural design contributes to enhanced well-being. Previous studies show that an individual’s well-being is determined by five main life domain factors: health, economy, personality, demographic variables and behavior variables. However, the life domain factors health and economy show stronger and more positive correlations to well-being. At this point, value creation within architectural design context, including window and blind design, can be seen as an attempt to enhance well-being by improving health and providing economic benefits for clients. Clients can represent i) owners who own a built asset, ii) investors who commit capital and expect to obtain financial return, or iii) occupants who live or work in the building every day. In the context of owner-occupied buildings, the value creation process is mainly seen as an attempt to enhance well-being for one entity by improving health and providing economic benefits. When considering investment properties or assets held for sale, the value creation process is mainly translated into an attempt to enhance well-being for several entities by improving health for occupants and providing economic benefits for owners and/or investors.Selecting a window and blind design to enhance client well-being remains a challenging task due to three main difficulties. The first difficulty relates to the contradictory effects of windows and blinds on visual and thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. The second difficulty is the availability of a variety of window and blind designs in different sizes, positions and forms, making the selection of windows and blinds an intricate decision challenge for architects and designers. The third difficulty involves decisions about the selection of windows and blinds that should include all criteria and their interactions simultaneously.To resolve the abovementioned difficulties, this research applied the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a multi-criteria decision-making method to select a window and blind design based on a trade-off between visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. The analyses of results show the capability of AHP in resolving difficulties, however its application is mainly limited to a small number of designs. To overcome this limitation, a decision-making framework was developed based on integration between non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) as an optimization algorithm and AHP. The strength and limitations of the decision-making framework were later tested by employing it in window and blind design practice. To investigate further benefits from the implementation of the framework, it was expanded by evaluating additional building envelopes, i.e. windows as well as external walls, roof and floor constructions, which made it possible to select a trade-off construction solution. The analyses of results show the framework’s ability to resolve difficulties and locate a trade-off design in a relatively short period of time. However, the decision-making framework only allows the analysis of the objective criteria for evaluating visual comfort, thermal comfort, energy consumption and life cycle cost. This is because it is necessary to rely on the creativity of the architects and designers when designing windows and blinds in order to consider subjective issues. The decision-making framework can be used either by design teams or customer service experts in window manufacturing companies. A literature study was therefore conducted to extend the technology acceptance model and thereby investigate the determinants of framework user acceptance of the decision-making framework. The results showed that organizational, individual, technological and environmental characteristics were the most influential external variables when investigating determinants of framework user acceptance of the framework. Organizational characteristics included top management support, training, organizational culture, and organizational size, while individual characteristics included the users’ previous knowledge and experience. Technological characteristics embraced information quality and system quality, meanwhile environmental characteristics comprised fulfillment of regulations and competitiveness.

Abstract [sv]

Utformningen av fönster och solskydd omfattar idag mer än att utvärdera en enda egenskap såsom energiförbrukning. Istället är fokus på helheten med det mänskliga perspektivet i design med syftet att skapa värde. De högsta värdena kan uppnås när en arkitektonisk design bidrar till att förbättra välbefinnandet hos människan. Välbefinnandet kontrolleras av de fem huvudsakliga faktorerna hälsa, ekonomi, personlighet, demografi och beteendevariabler. Bland faktorerna visar hälsa och ekonomi starkast och mest positivkorrelation med välbefinnande. En design kan skapa värde när det ökar kunders välbefinnande genom att förbättra hälsan och stärka ekonomin. Kunderna representerar bland annat ägare som äger en byggnad, investerare som satsar kapital och förväntar sig att få ekonomisk avkastning och boende som bor eller arbetar i byggnaden varje dag. Att skapa värde i samband med privata fastigheter kan ses främst som ett försök att öka välbefinnandet för vissa intressenter genom att förbättra hälsan och stärka ekonomin. Att skapa värde när man bygger fastigheter för uthyrning eller försäljning kan ses främst som ett försök att öka välbefinnandet genom att förbättra hälsan för boende och stärka ekonomin för ägare eller investerare.Att välja ett fönster och ett solskydd för att förbättra kundernas välbefinnande förblir en utmanande uppgift på grund av tre huvudsakliga svårigheter. Den första svårigheten avser de motsägelsefulla effekterna av fönster och solskydd på visuell och termisk komfort, energiförbrukningen och livscykelkostnaderna. Den andra svårigheten handlar om tillgången på ett stort antal olika fönster- och solskyddsdesign i olika storlekar, placeringar och former, vilket leder till att valet av fönster och solskydd blir till ett komplicerat problem. Den tredje svårigheten innebär beslut om val av fönster och solskydd som borde fokusera på alla kriterier (relaterade till den visuella och termiska komforten, energiförbrukningen och livscykelkostnaderna) och deras interaktioner samtidigt.För att lösa de ovannämnda svårigheterna användes den Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) metoden för att välja fönster och solskyddsdesign baserad på avvägning mellan visuell komfort, termisk komfort, energiförbrukningen och livscykelkostnaderna. Resultaten påvisar AHP metodens förmåga att lösa svårigheter men dess tillämpning är huvudsakligen begränsad inom ett litet antal designalternativ. För att övervinna denna begränsning utvecklades ett ramverk för beslutsstöd baserat på en integration mellan Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) som en optimeringsalgoritm och AHP. Styrkan och begränsningarna angående användningen av ramverket testades senare genom att användning i designprocessen. För att undersöka möjligheter med ramverket utvidgades användningen genom att använda det för att utvärdera andra detaljer på klimatskärmen d.v.s. fönster såväl som ytterväggar, tak- och golvkonstruktioner. Resultaten visar ramverkets förmåga att lösa svårigheter och hitta lämplig designalternativ. Emellertid tillåter ramverket endast analys av objektiva kriterier för visuell komfort, termisk komfort, energiförbrukning och livscykelkostnader. Att ta hänsyn till subjektiva frågor beror därför på arkitekternas kreativitet när de utformar fönster och solskydd.Det Beslutsstödjande ramverket kan användas av designteam eller av kundstöd hos ett företag som tillverkar fönster. En litteraturstudie genomfördes för att utvidga en Technology Acceptance Modell (TAM) och därmed undersöka om designteam eller kundstöd har viljan att använda ramverket i praktiken. Resultaten visade att organisatoriska, individuella, tekniska och miljömässiga egenskaper var de mest inflytelserika externa variablerna vid undersökning av användarnas acceptans av ramverket. Organisatoriska egenskaper inkluderade ledningens stöd, utbildning, organisationskultur och organisationsstorlek, medan individuella egenskaper innehöll användarnas tidigare kunskaper och erfarenheter. Teknologiska egenskaper omfattade informationskvalitet och systemkvalitet, samtidigt som miljökarakteristik omfattade uppfyllande av regler och konkurrenskraft.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2019
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations
Keywords
Value creation, Well-being, Multi-criteria decision-making, Analytical hierarchy process, Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II, Technology acceptance model, Värdskap, Välbefinnandet, Multikriterieanalys vid beslutsfattning, Analytical hierarchy process, Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II, Technology acceptance model
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-90431 (URN)978-91-89081-22-2 (ISBN)978-91-89081-21-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-12-12, Newton, Hus C, Växjö, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-12-10 Created: 2019-12-09 Last updated: 2020-05-08Bibliographically approved

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Jalilzadehazhari, ElahehJohansson, JimmyMahapatra, Krushna

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