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Geophysical investigation of glass 'hotspots' in glass dumps as potential secondary raw material sources
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. (ESEG)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9012-1847
Lund University, Sweden.
Lund University, Sweden.
Sweco Environment AB, Sweden.
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2020 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 106, p. 213-225Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the potential for Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to detect buried glass ‘hotspots’ in a glass waste dump based on results from an open glass dump investigated initially. This detection potential is vital for excavation and later use of buried materials as secondary resources. After ERT, test pits (TPs) were excavated around suspected glass hotspots and physico-chemical characterisation of the materials was done. Hotspots were successfully identified as regions of high resistivity (>8000 Ωm) and were thus confirmed by TPs which indicated mean glass composition of 87.2% among samples (up to 99% in some). However, high discrepancies in material resistivities increased the risk for introduction of artefacts, thus increasing the degree of uncertainty with depth, whereas similarities in resistivity between granite bedrock and crystal glass presented data misinterpretation risks. Nevertheless, suitable survey design, careful field procedures and caution exercised by basing data interpretations primarily on TP excavation observations generated good results particularly for near-surface materials, which is useful since glass waste dumps are inherently shallow. Thus, ERT could be a useful technique for obtaining more homogeneous excavated glass and other materials for use as secondary resources in metal extraction and other waste recycling techniques while eliminating complicated and often costly waste sorting needs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020. Vol. 106, p. 213-225
Keywords [en]
Electrical resistivity tomography, secondary resources, glass waste, landfill mining, waste characterisation, circular economy
National Category
Geophysical Engineering
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental technology; Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-93190DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2020.03.027ISI: 000525840000027PubMedID: 32240938OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-93190DiVA, id: diva2:1417678
Funder
Vinnova, 2017-03244Available from: 2020-03-30 Created: 2020-03-30 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Landfill mining approach for resource recovery from glass dumps into the circular economy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Landfill mining approach for resource recovery from glass dumps into the circular economy
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Landfills and open dumps have been the most cost-effective waste disposal option, resulting in over 500,000 landfills and dumps in the EU alone. They pose significant environmental and health threats due to emission of toxic gases and release of persistent contaminants to soil and groundwater, triggering a considerable global economic impact annually. Contrariwise, since they have been the ultimate end-of-life sink for materials over time, dumpsites are potential secondary resource reservoirs whose recovery could offset their impacts. However, resource recovery is impeded by the heterogeneous nature and contamination of the wastes, and thus uncertainty about availability and efficiency of recovery techniques. This thesis, therefore, proposes techniques that could improve excavated material quality and enhance their recovery as potential secondary resources for the circular economy.

Waste from glass dumps in south-eastern Sweden was characterised to evaluate safe handling, pre-recycling storage requirements, and suitability for resource recovery or disposal. The dumps were mapped with Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) before excavation to detect glass locations and enhance recovery. Furthermore, metal extraction from the recovered glass was assessed using a combination of mechanical activation of the glass and leaching with acids and biodegradable chelating agents. The waste required safe pre-recycling storage in hazardous waste class ‘bank account’ cells due to hazardous concentrations of leachable As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn. The waste obtained was also highly heterogeneous, although its recycling could not pose any radiological risks. However, application of ERT as a pre-excavation tool improved excavated material composition and secured a more homogeneous, recyclable fraction (>87% glass). Subsequently, leaching of the homogeneous glass fraction achieved Pb extraction efficiency of 78%, 64% and 42% for HNO3, EDDS and NTA respectively, at low leachant concentrations. The extraction was enhanced by the mechanical activation step, as comparison between activated and inactivated samples showed a 1200% difference in extraction.

The findings in this thesis highlight dumped waste as a resource whose recovery requires integrating the landfill mining approach with techniques that enhance material quality and extraction efficiency to ensure a resource-secure circular economy and decontaminated ecosystems.

Abstract [sv]

Deponier och öppna soptippar har varit det mest kostnadseffektiva alternativet för avfallshantering, vilket resulterade i över 500 000 deponier och soptippar bara inom EU. Dessa utgör stora miljö- och hälsorisker på grund av utsläpp av giftiga gaser och frigör föroreningar till mark och grundvatten, vilket årligen skapar betydande, globala ekonomiska konsekvenser. Eftersom de har varit det ultimata slutet för material över tid, så är deponier och soptippar potentiella, sekundära resursbehållare vars återvinning kan kompensera deras negativa effekter. Resursåtervinning hindras emellertid av den heterogena naturen hos, och förekommande föroreningar i, avfallet, vilket därmed skapar osäkerhet om återhämtnings-teknikernas tillgänglighet och effektivitet. Föreliggande avhandling föreslår därför tekniker som kan förbättra de utgrävda materialens kvalitet och förbättra deras återvinning som potentiella, sekundära resurser i den cirkulära ekonomin.

Avfall från glas-deponier i sydöstra Sverige karakteriserades för att utvärdera säker hantering, uppfylla lagringskrav för återvinning och lämplighet för resursåtervinning eller bortskaffande. Deponierna kartlades före utgrävningen med Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) för att identifiera platser med homogena glasfraktioner och förbättra återvinningen. Vidare utvärderades metallexstraktion från det utvunna glaset med användning av en kombination av mekanisk aktivering av glaset och urlakning med syror och biologiskt nedbrytbara kelatbildare. Avfallet krävde säker återvinnings-lagring i ”bankkonto-celler" för farligt avfall på grund av farliga koncentrationer av lakningsbara ämnen såsom As, Cd, Pb, Sb och Zn. Det erhållna avfallet var mycket heterogent, men återvinning kunde ändå inte påvisa några radiologiska risker. Användningen av ERT som ett identifikationsverktyg förbättrade emellertid den utgrävda materialkompositionen och säkerställde en mer homogen, återvinningsbar fraktion (>87% glas). Därefter uppnåddes urlakning av den homogena glasfraktionen en Pb-extraktionseffektivitet på 78%, 64% och 42% för HNO3, EDDS respektive NTA, vid låg lakningsmedel-koncentration. Extraktionen förbättrades genom det mekaniska aktiveringssteget, eftersom jämförelse mellan aktiverade och inaktiverade prover uppvisade en skillnad på 1200% i extraktion.

Resultaten i denna avhandling belyser deponerat avfall som en resurs vars återvinning kräver att integrera landfill mining-metoder med tekniker som förbättrar materialkvaliteten och utvinningseffektiviteten för att säkerställa en resurs-säker cirkulär ekonomi och dekontaminerade ekosystem.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2020. p. 70
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 381/2020
Keywords
Resource recovery, landfill mining, hazardous waste, hydrometallurgical extraction, geophysical mapping, circular economy, Återvinning av resurser, gruvdrift, farligt avfall, hydrometallurgisk utvinning, geofysisk kartläggning, cirkulär ekonomi
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-93643 (URN)978-91-89081-50-5 (ISBN)978-91-89081-51-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-05-08, Fullriggaren (MA 135), Landgången 3, 392 31, Kalmar, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2020-04-21 Created: 2020-04-21 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved

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Mutafela, Richard NasileleKaczala, FabioMarques, MarciaJani, YahyaHogland, William

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