lnu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Informal care provision among male and female working carers: Findings from a Swedish national survey
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1037-4682
Dalarna University, Sweden.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Swedish Family Care Competence Centre, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2028-6213
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Swedish Family Care Competence Centre, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7139-3524
Show others and affiliations
2022 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 3, article id e0263396Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction

Informal carers in paid employment–working carers (WKCs)—have complex support needs. However, little is known about WKCs’ pattern of informal care provision, the support they receive, the impact providing care has on their employment, and how these vary between male and female WKCs. This study describes the pattern of informal care provision and received support among Swedish WKCs.

Research method/Design

The study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of a stratified random sample of the Swedish population aged 18 or over. The questionnaire addressed the type and extent of informal care provided, support received and the impact of care provision on employment. Of the 30,009 people who received the questionnaire, 11,168 (37.3%) responded, providing an analytic sample of 818 (7.32% of respondents) employed or self-employed informal carers.

Findings

A typical Swedish WKC was a middle-aged female, providing weekly or daily care to a non-cohabitant parent, who experiences care as sometimes demanding and receives no formal support as a carer. Female WKCs were more likely than males to care alone and with higher intensity, to report a need for help in meeting their care-recipient’s needs, and to experience care as demanding. Approximately 17% of WKCs reported their employment had been affected due to caring, 40% their ability to work, and 31% their career development opportunities. Female WKCs’ ability to work was affected more than males’, and they were more commonly prevented from applying for work.

Conclusion

Swedish female WKCs compared to males provide more hours of informal care, across more care domains, more often alone. This places them in a challenging situation when combining paid work and care. Greater recognition of the challenges faced by WKCs is required in Sweden and other countries, as are policies to reduce gender inequalities in informal care provision in this group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science , 2022. Vol. 17, no 3, article id e0263396
National Category
Nursing Gender Studies
Research subject
Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-110748DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0263396ISI: 001143684900004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85125974596OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-110748DiVA, id: diva2:1643154
Available from: 2022-03-09 Created: 2022-03-09 Last updated: 2024-03-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Combining informal care with paid work: An exploration of working carers’ situation with regards to their health status, gendered patterns of care, support and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining informal care with paid work: An exploration of working carers’ situation with regards to their health status, gendered patterns of care, support and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Working carers (WKCs) combine paid work with informal care. Little is known about this important group of carers, which is expected to increase in number due topopulation ageing and economic trends. WKCs are beneficial for society but thecombination of work and care roles has consequences for their social and financialcircumstances as well as their health. This thesis explores the caregiving situation ofWKCs.

Study I was a scoping review of research on the challenges of and solutions for thecombination of paid work and care and the role of technologies in supportingWKCs. Results included a conceptual framework which identified high and/orcompeting demands as a key challenge solved by formal support. Web-based andcommunication technologies were seen to be a potential beneficial solution tosupport WKCs. Nevertheless, barriers existed in some instances, preventing theiroptimal use.

Studies II and III were based on data from a 2018 survey of a stratified randomsample of the Swedish population. Study II described informal care provision andreceived support among Swedish female and male WKCs. Female compared tomale WKCs cared more often alone, with more intensity, experienced care as moredemanding while their ability to work was reduced to a greater extent. Study III determined the caregiving-related factors associated with WKCs’ reducedability to work and experience of caregiving as demanding. A key finding was thatpsychological stress and financial problems due to caregiving increased the odds ofboth experiencing caregiving as demanding and a reduced ability to work, whilefinding caregiving satisfying decreased the odds of both.

Study IV was an interview study of WKCs’ experiences during the COVID-19pandemic. WKCs’ positive experiences included the delivery of support by distancevia digital technologies and more time with the care-recipient. Negative experiencesincluded the fear of becoming sick, new challenges at work, and the cancellation ofhome and community-based services for the care recipient.

This thesis contributes new knowledge on the situation of WKCs in Sweden. Itsfindings have implications for how policy can more appropriately and effectivelyaddress WKCs’ needs and preferences for support and their combination of workand care roles.

Abstract [sv]

Yrkesverksamma anhöriga (YVA) kombinerar förvärvsarbete med att geanhörigomsorg. Idag vet man ganska lite om denna viktiga grupp avomsorgsgivare som förväntas öka i antal på grund av en åldrande befolkningoch den ekonomiska utvecklingen. YVA gör stora insatser för samhället menkombinationen av förvärvsarbete och att ge anhörigomsorg får konsekvensersåväl för deras sociala och ekonomiska förhållanden som för deras hälsa. Dennaavhandling undersöker hur anhörigskapet påverkar YVA.

Studie I var en scoping review över forskning om utmaningar och lösningar vidkombinationen av att yrkesarbeta och ge anhörigomsorg och vilket stödinformations- och kommunikationstekniska lösningar kan innebära för YVA.Resultaten inkluderade ett begreppsmässigt ramverk som identifierade högaoch/eller konkurrerande krav som en avgörande utmaning som kan lösas medformellt stöd. Webbaserad teknik och kommunikationsteknik ansågs vara enpotentiell fördelaktig lösning för att stödja YVA. Likväl fanns det hinder som ivissa fall förhindrade att det användes optimalt.

Studie II och III baserades på data från en undersökning som genomfördes 2018på ett stratifierat slumpmässigt urval av Sveriges befolkning. Studie II beskrevinformella omsorgsåtaganden och erhållet stöd bland kvinnliga och manligaYVA. Kvinnor utförde oftare anhörigomsorg ensamma, med högre intensitetoch upplevde omsorgen mer krävande samtidigt som deras arbetsförmågaminskade i större utsträckning vid jämförelse med männen. Studie III fastställde de omsorgsrelaterade faktorer som associerades medYVAs minskade arbetsförmåga och att det är krävande att ge anhörigomsorg.Ett viktigt resultat var att psykisk stress och ekonomiska problem på grund avatt ge anhörigomsorg ökade risken att både uppleva omsorgen som krävandeoch gav upphov till minskad arbetsförmåga, medan upplevd tillfredställelse avatt ge anhörigomsorg minskade risken för detta.

Studie IV var en intervjustudie om YVAs erfarenheter under COVID-19pandemin. YVAs positiva erfarenheter inkluderade stöd på distans via digitalteknik och mer tid med omsorgstagaren. Negativa erfarenheter inkluderaderädslan för att bli sjuk, nya utmaningar på arbetsplatsen och inställtkommunbaserat stöd till omsorgstagaren.

Denna avhandling bidrar med ny kunskap om YVAs situation i Sverige.Resultaten har betydelse för hur policyer mer effektivt och lämpligt kan hanterastödbehovet hos YVA som kombinerar yrkesarbete med anhörigomsorg.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2023. p. 101
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 476
Keywords
working carers, informal care, family care, support, employment, gender, health, COVID-19 pandemic, yrkesverksamma anhöriga, informell vård, anhörigomsorg, stöd, anställning, kön, hälsa, COVID-19 pandemi
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Health and Caring Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-118187 (URN)10.15626/LUD.476.2023 (DOI)9789189709799 (ISBN)9789189709805 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-01-20, Sal Lapis, Hus Vita 391 82, Kalmar, 13:46 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-01-13 Created: 2023-01-09 Last updated: 2024-03-26Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(2121 kB)222 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 2121 kBChecksum SHA-512
5f6912da5c619070264ba76cee947694ff630204b7ad73449ab15fd6038d8e8825f67bb7c8ec4877046be1d88417d3991c24ef0d21d37accb2fb2fcc960fabce
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full textScopus

Authority records

Vicente, JoanaMagnusson, LennartJohansson, PaulineHanson, Elizabeth

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Vicente, JoanaMagnusson, LennartJohansson, PaulineEkman, BjörnHanson, Elizabeth
By organisation
Department of Health and Caring SciencesDepartment of Medicine and Optometry
In the same journal
PLOS ONE
NursingGender Studies

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 222 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 882 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf