lnu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Medication communication with older adults experiencing chronic illness and polypharmacy
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9780-7959
2023 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Populations in many high-income countries are ageing, with an ever-increasing proportion of the population aged 65 years or older. Despite increasingly better health in older people, susceptibility to chronic illness increase with age. As life expectancy increases, the length of time people can live with chronic illness increases correspondingly, mainly due to improved medication treatments. Decreased number of hospital beds per capita and length of stay in hospital has gained primary care an increasing role in the healthcare system, with higher demands on patients and their knowledge and abilities to manage medications and self-management.

Aim: The overarching aim of this thesis was to explore how medication regimens are communicated in primary care consultations and in written discharge letters.

Methods: In Study I, passive participant observations of primary care consultations were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using content analysis. Study II had a convergent mixed methods design. An assessment matrix, constructed based on previous research, was used to assess and quantify discharge letter content. The quantified discharge letter content, questionnaires and register data were used to calculate correlations between discharge letter content and readmission rate as well as self-rated quality of care transition. Finally, associations between discharge letter content and time to readmission were calculated both univariable and multivariable. In addition to discharge letter content, several other potential independent variables were included in the multivariable analysis.

Results: Both studies show that physicians were prone to give information about medications and blood-samples or other examinations performed in advance to the consultation (Study I) or during the hospital admission (Study II). The physicians were, however, less prone to inform patients about self-management and lifestyle changes, symptoms to be aware of, and what to do in case they would appear. Communication was occasionally hindered by misunderstandings, e.g., when vague expressions or words with ambiguous meaning was used. Ambiguities e.g., arose due to dialectal disparity. Although physicians mainly communicated in plain language with patients, medication names imposed a significant problem for patients and in communication about medications. Discharge letter content was not associated to readmissions, the only significant predictor variables for time to readmission were previous admission the past 180 days and birth outside the Nordic countries. Discharge letters with more content were, on the other hand, correlated to worse self-estimated quality of care transition from hospital to home (Study II).

Conclusions: Physicians informed patients about tests and examinations performed in the past time, and comprehensive information was provided about medications, both during consultations and in discharge letters. However, information about symptoms to be aware of and measures to take in case they would appear was scarce in consultations and discharge letters. In conversations where lifestyle changes were raised, the topic was quickly dropped without recommendations or offering support if the patient showed unconcern. Lifestyle changes in relation to chronic illness and medications were rarely discussed. Improved lifestyle as a means of reducing the need for medications was not discussed or informed about in discharge letters. Discharge letter content did not have any impact on readmissions.

Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Många höginkomstländer har en åldrande befolkning, där andelen av befolkningen som är över 65 år ständigt ökar. Trots att hälsan hos äldre har blivit bättre, ökar risken för kroniska sjukdomar med åldern. I takt med den ökande medellivslängden har också den tid människor kan leva med kronisk sjukdom ökat, något som till stor del beror på förbättrade läkemedelsbehandlingar. Antalet vårdplatser per capita och den genomsnittliga vårdtiden på sjukhus har minskat de senaste decennierna, medan primärvården har fått en allt större roll i hälso- och sjukvården. Detta ställer allt högre krav på patienter och deras kunskaper och förmåga att hantera mediciner och egenvård.

Syfte: Det övergripande syftet med denna uppsats var att undersöka kommunikation om läkemedelsbehandlingar vid årliga besök i primärvården och i skriftliga utskrivningsmeddelanden. Specifika syften med studierna var att:

Studie I: Utforska kommunikation om läkemedelshantering under årliga läkarbesök i primärvården för patienter med kronisk sjukdom och polyfarmaci.

Studie II: Avgöra vilken effekt innehållet i utskrivningsmeddelanden har för oplanerad återinläggning på sjukhus inom 30 eller 90 dagar, samt att identifiera korrelation mellan innehållet i utskrivningsmeddelanden och självskattad kvalitet på vårdövergången.

Metoder: I Studie I genomfördes passiva deltagarobservationer av årliga läkarbesök med kroniskt sjuka äldre som behandlas med polyfarmaci. Ljudinspelningar gjordes vid besöken, och dessa transkriberades och analyserades genom innehållsanalys.

Studie II hade en design med mixade metoder. Patientkaraktäristika, skattningsskalor, registerdata och utskrivningsmeddelanden för patienter med hjärtsvikt eller kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom som skrevs ut från inneliggande sjukhusvård ingick i analyserna. För att kunna bedöma och kvantifiera innehållet i utskrivningsmeddelanden konstruerades en bedömningsmatris med utgångspunkt i tidigare forskning. Det kvantifierade innehållet i utskrivningsmeddelanden, frågeformulär och registerdata användes för att beräkna korrelation mellan innehåll i utskrivningsmeddelanden och återinläggningar samt självskattad kvalitet på vårdövergången från sjukhus till eget boende. Slutligen undersöktes om innehållet i utskrivningsmeddelanden påverkade tid till återinläggning, med en icke-parametrisk metod (Kaplan-Meier) och en semi-parametrisk (Cox proportional hazards model). I den semiparametriska modellen ingick förutom det kvantifierade innehållet i utskrivningsmeddelanden även flera andra potentiella förklarande variabler från patientkaraktäristika, frågeformulär och registerdata.

Resultat: Båda studierna visar att läkarna var benägna att ge information om läkemedel, blodprover och andra undersökningar som gjorts inför läkarbesöket (Studie I) eller under sjukhusinläggningen (Studie II). Läkarna var dock mindre benägna att informera patienter om egenvård och livsstilsförändringar, och symtom som patienterna ska vara uppmärksamma på och vilka åtgärder som patienterna i så fall skulle vidta (Studie I; Studie II).Kommunikationen under läkarbesöken hindrades ibland av missförstånd, vaga uttryck eller när ord med tvetydig betydelse användes. Tvetydigheter kunde till exempel uppstå på grund av dialektala skillnader. Trots att läkarna kommunicerade i klartext med patienterna medförde läkemedelsnamn ett betydande problem för patienterna och i kommunikationen om läkemedel (Studie I). Utskrivningsmeddelandets innehåll påverkade inte risken för återinläggning inom 30 eller 90 dygn, och påverkade inte heller tiden till återinläggning, de enda signifikanta förklarande variablerna för tid till återinläggning var tidigare sjukhusinläggning de senaste 180 dagarna och att vara född utanför Norden. Mer innehåll i utskrivningsmeddelanden var däremot korrelerat till sämre självskattad kvalitet på vårdövergången från sjukhus till eget boende (Studie II).

Slutsatser: Läkarna informerade sina patienter om blodprover och undersökningar som gjorts inför läkarbesöket, och gav omfattande information om de läkemedel som patienten använde, både vid årliga läkarbesök i primärvården (Studie I) och i utskrivningsmeddelanden (Studie II). Information om symtom som patienterna skulle vara uppmärksamma på, och vilka åtgärder som patienterna i så fall skulle vidta var dock knapphändiga, både vid de årliga besöken och i utskrivningsmeddelanden. I samtal där livsstilsförändringar togs upp lämnades ämnet oftast snabbt om patienten visade ointresse, utan att rekommendationer eller erbjudande om stöd från vårdcentralen gavs. Livsstilsförändringar i relation till kronisk sjukdom och läkemedel diskuterades sällan. Förbättrad livsstil som ett sätt att minska behovet av mediciner diskuterades eller informerades inte om i utskrivningsmeddelanden. Utskrivningsmeddelandets innehåll påverkade inte heller risken för, eller tiden till, återinläggning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linnaeus University Press, 2023. , p. 80
Series
Lnu Licentiate ; 41
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Nursing
Research subject
Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-119519DOI: 10.15626/LnuLic.41.2023ISBN: 9789189709829 (print)ISBN: 9789189709836 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-119519DiVA, id: diva2:1739090
Presentation
2023-03-17, Azur, Norra kajplan 6, Kalmar, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-02-24 Created: 2023-02-23 Last updated: 2023-03-01Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The impact of discharge letter content on unplanned hospital readmissions within 30 and 90 days in patients with chronic illness
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of discharge letter content on unplanned hospital readmissions within 30 and 90 days in patients with chronic illness
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aim: To determine the impact of discharge letter content on unplanned hospital readmissions within 30 and 90 days, and to identify correlations between discharge letter content and quality of care transitions among patients with chronic illness.

Design: A convergent mixed methods design.

Methods: Discharge letters from 154 patients recruited to a randomised controlled trial were coded using an assessment matrix and deductive content analysis. The assessment matrix was based on a literature review performed to identify key elements in discharge letters that facilitate a safe care transition to home. The coded key elements were transformed into a quantitative variable of 'discharge letter score'. Bivariate correlations between discharge letter score and quality of care transition as well as unplanned readmissions within 30 and 90 days were calculated. Lastly, a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate associations between discharge letter score and time to readmission.

Results: All discharge letters contained at least five of eleven key elements. In less than four percent, all eleven key elements were present. Neither discharge letter score nor single key elements correlated with 30-day or 90-day readmission rate. Discharge letter score was not associated with time to readmission when adjusted for a range of patient characteristics and self-rated quality of care transitions.

Conclusion: Discharge letter score is not correlated with either 30-day or 90-day readmission rate or with time to readmission at 90 days, when patient characteristics are adjusted for.

Implications for the profession and patient care: Written discharge summaries are not enough to facilitate safe care transitions and self-management after discharge. A person-centred approach, providing written and verbal information to patients, encouraging patient involvement soon after discharge, may be needed to avoid readmission.

National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-119516 (URN)
Available from: 2023-02-23 Created: 2023-02-23 Last updated: 2023-05-31Bibliographically approved
2. Communication about medication management during patient–physician consultations in primary care: a participant observation study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communication about medication management during patient–physician consultations in primary care: a participant observation study
Show others...
2022 (English)In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 12, no 11, article id e062148Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective To explore communication about medication management during annual consultations in primary care. Design: passive participant observations of primary care consultations.

Setting Two primary care centres in southern Sweden.

Participants Consultations between 18 patients (over the age of 60 years) with chronic diseases and 10 general practitioners (GPs) were observed, audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using content analysis.

Results Four categories emerged: communication barriers, striving for a shared understanding of medication management, evaluation of the current medication treatment and the plan ahead and behavioural changes in relation to medication management. Misunderstandings in communication, failure to report changes in the medication treatment and use of generic substitutes complicated mutual understanding and agreement on continued treatment. The need for behavioural changes to reduce the need for medication treatment was recognised but should be explored further.

Conclusion Several pitfalls, including miscommunication and inaccurate medication lists, for safe medication management were identified. The purpose of annual consultations should be clarified, individual treatment plans could be used more actively during primary care consultations and efforts are needed to improve verbal communication and information continuity.No data are available.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2022
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Research subject
Health and Caring Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-119337 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2022-062148 (DOI)000924534200014 ()36328391 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85141270219 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-02-14 Created: 2023-02-14 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(714 kB)240 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT02.pdfFile size 714 kBChecksum SHA-512
72d118172b009b3bd3339af4aa4b9e7e23922da2d52d635077fb544534e54c3bce120a8340d4b8d9678e4a275fe2627ed34d21303f1a1c0094633f0197c32399
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full text

Authority records

Adelsjö, Igor

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Adelsjö, Igor
By organisation
Department of Health and Caring Sciences
Medical and Health SciencesNursing

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 247 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 689 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf