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On the establishment of a data-driven approach to gravel road maintenance
Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för maskinteknik (MT). (Sustainable maintenance of gravel road)ORCID-id: 0000-0003-2619-9137
2023 (Engelska)Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Hållbar utveckling
SDG 9: Bygga motståndskraftig infrastruktur, verka för en inkluderande och hållbar industrialisering samt främja innovation, SDG 11: Göra städer och bosättningar inkluderande, säkra, motståndskraftiga och hållbara
Abstract [en]

Gravel roads are essential for economic development as they facilitate the movement of people, transportation of goods and services, and promote cultural and social development. They typically connect sparsely populated rural areas to urban centres, providing essential access for residents and entrepreneurs. Maintaining these roads to an acceptable level of service is crucial for the efficient and safe transportation of goods and services. However, substantial maintenance investmentis required, yet resources are limited. Gravel roads are prone to dust, potholes, corrugations, rutting and loose gravel. They deteriorate faster than paved roads, and their failure development is affected by traffic action and physical, geometric and climatic factors. Thus, more condition monitoring and proper road condition assessment are necessary for dynamic maintenance planning to reach efficiency and effectiveness using objective, data-driven condition assessment methods to ensure all-year-round access.

However, objective data-driven methods (DDMs) are not frequently used for gravel road condition assessment, and where they have been applied, the practical implementation is limited. Instead, visual windshield assessment and manual methods are predominant. Visual assessments are unreliable and susceptible to human judgement errors, while manual methods are time-consuming and labour-intensive. Maintenance activities are predetermined despite dynamic maintenance needs, and the planning is based on historical failure data rather than the actual road condition. This thesis establishes a data-driven approach to gravel road maintenance describing the systematic assessment of the gravel road condition and collection of the condition data to ensure efficient and effective maintenance planning. This thesis uses a design research methodology based on a literature review, concept development, interview study and field experiments.

A holistic approach is proposed for data-driven maintenance of gravel roads encompassing objective condition data collection, processing, analysing, and interpreting the findings for obtaining reliable information concerning the condition to gravel road decision support by utilising the opportunities presented by technological advancements, particularly sensor technology. Then, decision-making is primarily influenced by the objectively collected gravel road condition data rather than the evaluator’s perception or experience. The successful implementation of a data-driven approach depends on the quality of the collected data; therefore, data relevance and quality are emphasised in this thesis. The lack of data quality and relevance hinders effective data utilisation, leading to less precisionin decision-making and ineffective decisions.

Furthermore, the thesis proposes a participatory data-driven approach for unpaved road condition monitoring, allowing road users to be part of the maintenance process and providing an efficient and effective alternative for collecting road condition data and accomplishing broad coverage at minimum cost. A top-down iiapproach for data-driven gravel road condition classification is proposed to achieve an objective assessment to address the lack of readily available quality and relevant condition data. The established data-driven approach to gravel road maintenance is evaluated and verified with field experiments on three gravel roads in Växjö municipality, Southern Sweden. The research findings indicate that properly implementing a data-driven approach to gravel road maintenance would ensure efficient and effective condition assessment and classification, which are a basis for a maintenance management system of gravel roads and enable road maintainers and authorities to achieve cost-effective decision-making. 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2023. , s. 44
Serie
Lnu Licentiate ; 44
Nyckelord [en]
Gravel road, condition assessment, conceptual modelling, condition classification, data acquisition, data-driven methods, field experiment, literature review, maintenance, visual assessment
Nationell ämneskategori
Tillförlitlighets- och kvalitetsteknik Infrastrukturteknik
Forskningsämne
Teknik, Maskinteknik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-123360DOI: 10.15626/LnuLic.44.2023ISBN: 9789180820615 (tryckt)ISBN: 9789180820622 (digital)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-123360DiVA, id: diva2:1784279
Opponent
Handledare
Projekt
Sustainable maintenance of gravel roadTillgänglig från: 2023-07-28 Skapad: 2023-07-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-07-28Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Literature Review on Gravel Road Maintenance: Current State and Directions for Future Research
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Literature Review on Gravel Road Maintenance: Current State and Directions for Future Research
2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 2677, nr 5, s. 506-522Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Gravel roads form a significant share of the global road network, usually in sparsely populated rural areas. They are important, especially in agriculture, tourism, and forestry, connecting rural to urban areas. This systematic literature study comprises 105 reviewed publications on gravel road maintenance. Review articles on maintenance management practices, especially concerning objective condition assessment and data-driven methods (DDMs), are lacking. Therefore, this review provides a concise overview of current gravel road maintenance practices and ongoing research on objective condition assessment and DDMs for gravel road maintenance. It offers researchers in gravel road maintenance and other related fields a clear indication of where to focus their research efforts, as it suggests the direction for future research. Visual assessment methods are predominant for monitoring the condition of gravel roads, while objective methods and DDMs are not common. Research on gravel roads and their maintenance has increased in the last two decades, especially in North America and Northern Europe. Condition assessment is shifting from subjective to objective methods, utilizing knowledge from technological advancements in image processing, vibration and acoustics analysis, and so forth. There are some excellent research initiatives for objectively assessing the condition of gravel roads and DDMs, but the practical implementation is limited. Implementing objective assessment methods and DDMs generally improves the management of gravel roads with regard to decision-making, maintenance costs, safety, and the stability and comfort of the ride. Objective condition assessment and DMs have the potential to enhance maintenance practices in the maintenance of gravel roads.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Sage Publications, 2023
Nyckelord
data-driven methods, descriptive analysis, gravel roads, gravel road maintenance, literature review
Nationell ämneskategori
Infrastrukturteknik Tillförlitlighets- och kvalitetsteknik
Forskningsämne
Teknik, Maskinteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-117642 (URN)10.1177/03611981221133102 (DOI)000885580200001 ()2-s2.0-85163085790 (Scopus ID)
Projekt
Sustainable maintenance of gravel road (HUG)
Forskningsfinansiär
Familjen Kamprads stiftelse, 20180275
Tillgänglig från: 2022-11-22 Skapad: 2022-11-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-08-25Bibliografiskt granskad
2. A data-driven approach for gravel road maintenance
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A data-driven approach for gravel road maintenance
2021 (Engelska)Ingår i: 2021 International Conference on Maintenance and Intelligent Asset Management (ICMIAM), IEEE, 2021, s. 1-6Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Gravel roads are important assets forgeographically sparse countries, but the maintenance of theseroads is costly and inefficient. In addition, as failure developmentis highly affected by environmental factors, the planning shouldbe dynamic for reaching efficiency and effectiveness, which isachieved by data-driven maintenance approaches. This paperproposes applying a data-driven approach in gravel roadmaintenance following the steps of the OSA-CBM specifications.The conceptual approach is developed and illustrated based on thefindings of an extensive literature review. The approach thuscontextualises OSA-CBM in gravel road maintenance and pointsout further development and research areas. It was found that theresearch has mainly focused on data acquisition techniques, roadcondition classification, diagnostics, and deterioration models,while data manipulation methods and prognostic models forgravel roads are rather unresearched areas. In addition, a holisticapproach towards data-driven maintenance of gravel roads iscurrently lacking. In this perspective, the approach presented inthis paper could serve as a base for the further development ofdata-driven methods to reach efficient and effective gravel roadmaintenance practices.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE, 2021
Nyckelord
Data-driven methods, Decision Making, Gravel road maintenance, OSA-CBM
Nationell ämneskategori
Tillförlitlighets- och kvalitetsteknik Infrastrukturteknik Annan elektroteknik och elektronik
Forskningsämne
Teknik, Maskinteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-110858 (URN)10.1109/ICMIAM54662.2021.9715196 (DOI)000800216700012 ()2-s2.0-85126738887 (Scopus ID)9781665466714 (ISBN)9781665466721 (ISBN)
Konferens
2021 International Conference on Maintenance and Intelligent Asset Management (ICMIAM), Ballarat, Australia, December 12-15, 2021
Projekt
Hållbart underhåll av grusväg
Tillgänglig från: 2022-03-17 Skapad: 2022-03-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-07-28Bibliografiskt granskad

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