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Assessing the risk of an excess fluoride intake among Swedish children in households with private wells: Expanding static single-source methods to a probabilistic multi-exposure-pathway approach
Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 68, s. 192-199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

It is often assumed that water consumption is the major route of exposure for fluoride and analysis of water fluoride content is the most common approach for ensuring that the daily intake is not too high. In the present study, the risk of excess intake was characterized for children in households with private wells in Kalmar County, Sweden, where the natural geology shows local enrichments in fluorine. By comparing water concentrations with the WHO drinking water guideline (1.5 mg/L), it was found that 24% of the ca. 4800 sampled wells had a concentration above this limit, hence providing a figure for the number of children in the households concerned assessed to be at risk using this straightforward approach. The risk of an excess intake could, alternatively, also be characterized based on a tolerable daily intake (in this case the US EPA RfD of 0.06 mg/kg-day). The exposure to be evaluated was calculated using a probabilistic approach, where the variability in all exposure factors was considered, again for the same study population. The proportion of children assessed to be at risk after exposure from drinking water now increased to 48%, and when the probabilistic model was adjusted to also include other possible exposure pathways; beverages and food, ingestion of toothpaste, oral soil intake and dust inhalation, the number increased to 77%. Firstly, these results show how the risk characterization is affected by the basis of comparison. In this example, both of the reference values used are widely acknowledged. Secondly, it illustrates how much of the total exposure may be overlooked when only focusing on one exposure pathway, and thirdly, it shows the importance of considering the variability in all relevant pathways.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2014. Vol. 68, s. 192-199
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljövetenskap
Forskningsämne
Naturvetenskap, Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-33952DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.03.014ISI: 000337874300022Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84898926173OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-33952DiVA, id: diva2:713447
Tillgänglig från: 2014-04-23 Skapad: 2014-04-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Fluoride in surface water and groundwater in southeast Sweden: sources, controls and risk aspects
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Fluoride in surface water and groundwater in southeast Sweden: sources, controls and risk aspects
2016 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis is to determine the sources, controls and risk aspects of fluoride in surface water and groundwater in a region of southeastern Sweden where the fluorine-rich 1.45 Ga circular Götemar granite (5 km in diameter) crops out in the surrounding 1.8 Ga granites and quartz monzodiorites (TIB rocks). The materials of this thesis include both primary data, collected for the purpose of this thesis, and a large set of secondary data, retrieved from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., the Swedish Geological Survey and the Kalmar County Council. A characteristic feature of the area is high fluoride concentrations in all kinds of natural waters, including surface waters (such as streams) and groundwater in both the Quaternary deposits (regolith groundwater) and bedrock fractures (fracture groundwater). A number of potential sources and controls of the high fluoride concentrations were investigated, including a variety of geological, mineralogical, mineral-chemical and hydrological features and processes. For the stream waters and regolith groundwater, high fluoride concentrations were correlated with the location of the Götemar granite. This finding is explained by the discharge of fluoride-rich groundwater from fractures in the bedrock and/or the release of fluoride due to the weathering of fluorine-bearing minerals in the Quaternary deposits; however, the Quaternary deposits had considerably lower fluoride concentrations than the underlying bedrock. The high fluoride concentrations in the fresh fracture groundwater (up to 7.4 mg/L) in the TIB-rocks are proposed to be the result of long residence times and the alteration/dissolution of fluorine-bearing primary and secondary minerals along the fracture walls. In terms of risk aspects, this thesis shows that fluoride can add to the transport and inorganic complexation of aluminium in humic-rich, acidic streams. Additionally, 24 % of the children in households with private wells in Kalmar County were assessed to be at risk of excess fluoride intake based on the WHO drinking water guideline value (1.5 mg/L). However, the risk increased significantly when instead the US EPA reference dose (0.06 mg/kg-day) was used, both when all relevant exposure pathways were taken into account as well as water consumption alone. Hence, it is shown that the risk of an excess intake of fluoride is strongly dependent on the basis for evaluation.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2016
Serie
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 253/2016
Nyckelord
fluorine, fluoride, water-rock interaction, granite, crystalline bedrock, surface water, groundwater, Götemar, drinking water quality, aluminium, speciation, fluorosis, PBA
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljövetenskap
Forskningsämne
Naturvetenskap, Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-52562 (URN)978-91-88357-20-5 (ISBN)
Disputation
2016-06-10, Fullriggaren, Sjöfartshögskolan, Kalmar, 09:30 (Svenska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2016-05-20 Skapad: 2016-05-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-11-22Bibliografiskt granskad

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