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The Increase in Bismuth Consumption as Reflected in Sewage Sludge
Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
Statistics Sweden.
Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 226, nr 4, s. 1-11, artikel-id 92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

As the use of dangerous substances in consumer products increases, these substances may also be found in society’s end products, among them sewage sludge. Measuring concentrations in sewage sludge can be a way to reflect the consumption of a substance. By using substance flow analysis, the inflow, stock and outflow of the specific substance to, e.g. a city region, may be analysed. Bismuth is a heavy metal that is found in increasing levels in sewage sludge in Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a similar increase cannot be excluded for WWTPs around the world. This study aims to examine possible sources that could explain the amounts measured in one Swedish WWTP. Household products such as cosmetics (24 %) and plastics (14 %) are found to be major sources of Bi measured in sewage sludge. The remaining unidentified amounts in this study (approximately 50 %) are most likely found in effluent waters from industries or sources outside the household. There is, however, no information on measurements of Bi released by industry available and there is no legislation in place that may encourage industry to conduct such measurements.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2015. Vol. 226, nr 4, s. 1-11, artikel-id 92
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljövetenskap
Forskningsämne
Naturvetenskap, Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-41028DOI: 10.1007/s11270-015-2374-xISI: 000351523700009Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84958073856OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-41028DiVA, id: diva2:796613
Tillgänglig från: 2015-03-19 Skapad: 2015-03-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-04Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Diffuse emissions from goods: influences on some societal end products
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Diffuse emissions from goods: influences on some societal end products
2015 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

End products of society (e.g. sewage sludge and incineration ashes) can be used as indicators of the use of chemicals in consumer goods. Through upstream work the sources of substances released from goods may be identified before the emissions reach the end products.

This thesis is a result of five studies, of which four were conducted using substance flow analyses (SFA) for silver (Ag), bismuth (Bi) and copper (Cu) reaching sewage sludge. The fifth is an SFA that explores the implications of the presence of As (from CCA-treated wood) in ashes. These studies helped fulfil the specific and overall aims of the thesis; to contribute to the general knowledge on diffuse emissions reflected in end products, by examining emissions of some heavy metals from various societal goods and the implications for end products, in this case sewage sludge and, to some extent, ashes.

The results from the studies, of which four had Stockholm as a study object, show the urban flows and accumulated amounts (stocks) of the heavy metals. The largest sources of the metals Ag, Bi and Cu in sewage sludge were identified to be textiles (Ag), cosmetics (Bi) and brake linings (Cu). For As (in CCA-treated wood) and Cu updated SFAs were performed and compared with earlier studies in order to follow the development and changes in flows over time.

The current use of the heavy metals studied can also be seen as a loss of resources, and as the metals should ideally be recovered as a part of a circular economy, urban and landfill mining as well as recycling are alternatives that need further exploring. The legislation of chemicals in consumer goods was identified as an important step in handling corresponding diffuse emissions.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2015. s. 166
Serie
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 229
Nyckelord
Arsenic, bismuth, CCA-treated wood, copper, material flow analysis, silver, substance flow analysis, urban flows
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljövetenskap
Forskningsämne
Naturvetenskap, Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-46805 (URN)978-91-87925-80-1 (ISBN)
Disputation
2015-11-06, Fullriggaren, Landgången 4, Kalmar, 09:30 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2015-10-21 Skapad: 2015-10-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-09-16Bibliografiskt granskad

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Amneklev, JennieAugustsson, AnnaBergbäck, Bo

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