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Bismuth and Silver in Cosmetic Products: A Source of Environmental and Resource Concern?
Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
Statistics Sweden, Stockholm.
Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 99-106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Bismuth (Bi) and silver (Ag) are used in increasing amounts and are consequently being emitted from various sources and showing high accumulation rates in soils when sewage sludge is applied on arable land. This study aimed to analyze the amounts of Bi and Ag in three cosmetic products (foundation, powder, and eye shadow) in order to study the flows in urban wastewater in Stockholm, Sweden. Analyses showed that Bi was present in very high concentrations (7,000 to 360,000 milligrams per kilogram) in one third of the analyzed foundation and powder samples, whereas Ag concentrations all were below the detection limit. These cosmetic products explained approximately 24% of the measured total Bi amounts per year reaching the WWTP (wastewater treatment plant), making cosmetics a major Bi source, whereas for Ag the corresponding contribution was <0.1% of the measured annual Ag amounts. The results were roughly adapted for Europe and the United States, estimating the Bi flows from cosmetics to WWTPs. On a global scale, these flows correspond to a non-negligible part of the world Bi production that, every year, ends up in sewage sludge, limiting the reuse of a valuable metal resource. From an environmental and resource perspective, foundations and powder products should be considered as significant sources of measured Bi amounts in sludge. This large Bi flow must be considered as unsustainable. For Ag, however, the three analyzed cosmetic products are not a significant source of the total Ag load to WWTPs.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2016. Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 99-106
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Naturvetenskap, Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-41029DOI: 10.1111/jiec.12251ISI: 000371484400009Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84959136617OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-41029DiVA, id: diva2:796618
Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-03-19 Laget: 2015-03-19 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-04bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Diffuse emissions from goods: influences on some societal end products
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Diffuse emissions from goods: influences on some societal end products
2015 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

End products of society (e.g. sewage sludge and incineration ashes) can be used as indicators of the use of chemicals in consumer goods. Through upstream work the sources of substances released from goods may be identified before the emissions reach the end products.

This thesis is a result of five studies, of which four were conducted using substance flow analyses (SFA) for silver (Ag), bismuth (Bi) and copper (Cu) reaching sewage sludge. The fifth is an SFA that explores the implications of the presence of As (from CCA-treated wood) in ashes. These studies helped fulfil the specific and overall aims of the thesis; to contribute to the general knowledge on diffuse emissions reflected in end products, by examining emissions of some heavy metals from various societal goods and the implications for end products, in this case sewage sludge and, to some extent, ashes.

The results from the studies, of which four had Stockholm as a study object, show the urban flows and accumulated amounts (stocks) of the heavy metals. The largest sources of the metals Ag, Bi and Cu in sewage sludge were identified to be textiles (Ag), cosmetics (Bi) and brake linings (Cu). For As (in CCA-treated wood) and Cu updated SFAs were performed and compared with earlier studies in order to follow the development and changes in flows over time.

The current use of the heavy metals studied can also be seen as a loss of resources, and as the metals should ideally be recovered as a part of a circular economy, urban and landfill mining as well as recycling are alternatives that need further exploring. The legislation of chemicals in consumer goods was identified as an important step in handling corresponding diffuse emissions.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2015. s. 166
Serie
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 229
Emneord
Arsenic, bismuth, CCA-treated wood, copper, material flow analysis, silver, substance flow analysis, urban flows
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Naturvetenskap, Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-46805 (URN)978-91-87925-80-1 (ISBN)
Disputas
2015-11-06, Fullriggaren, Landgången 4, Kalmar, 09:30 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-10-21 Laget: 2015-10-20 Sist oppdatert: 2019-09-16bibliografisk kontrollert

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