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Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and trace elements
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6288-4022
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The rapid urbanization and industrialization has led to an increase of disposal petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and trace elements (TE) into the environment. These pollutants are considered as the most toxic contaminants in the world due to their persistence in the environment, and the long range of toxicological effects for living beings.

Recent concerns regarding the environmental contamination have initiated the development of several remediation technologies, including physical, chemical, and biological approaches. In this thesis, gentle soil remediation options (GRO) were investigated at different scales for the reclamation of PHC and TE co-contaminated soil. In the first part of this thesis, laboratory experiments were performed to characterize PHC and TE contaminated soil as well as the indigenous microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) present inside these contaminated soil. It was found that the studied aged contaminated soil had a negative effect on earthworm’s development and L. sativum biomass. Moreover, a high respiration of microorganisms attributed to the transformation/ mineralization of organic matter or/and organic pollutants was observed. This presence of viable microorganisms suggested an adaptation of microorganisms to the contaminant. Further results showed that the long-term exposure of soil microorganisms to high PHC concentration and the type of isolation culture media did not influence the ability of isolates to effectively degrade PHC. However, phylogenic affiliation had a strong on PHC biodegradation. In the second part of this thesis, preliminary studies in greenhouse were assessed to investigate the ability of M. sativa assisted by compost in the greenhouse aided-phytoremediation of PHC and TE. It was found that compost incorporation into the soil promoted PHC degradation, M. sativa growth and survival, and phytoextraction of TE. Residual risk assessment after the phytoremediation trial also showed a positive effect of compost amendment on plant growth and earthworm development. Pilot scale ecopile experiment carried out in the third part of this thesis allow a reduction of up to 80% of PHC and 20% of metals after 17 months. This research demonstrated that M. sativa and H. annus were suitable for phytodegradation of PHC and phytoextraction of TE.  Results from this thesis are helpful for further full-scale phytoremediation studies. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2017. , p. 212
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 279/2017
Keywords [en]
Petroleum Hydrocarbon, Trace Elements, Gentle Soil Remediation Options, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, Respirometry, Ecopile, Bacteria, Fungi
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-60839ISBN: 978-91-88357-63-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-60839DiVA, id: diva2:1076203
Public defence
2017-03-10, N2007, Västergård, Kalmar, 14:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2017-03-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological characterization of petroleum hydrocarbons and trace elements contaminated soil
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-60830 (URN)
Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2018-02-01Bibliographically approved
2. Culture-Dependant and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Culture-Dependant and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils
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2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 6, article id e0128272Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

National Category
Microbiology Soil Science
Research subject
Natural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-60834 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0128272 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
3. Petroleum biodegradation capacity of bacteria and fungi isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Petroleum biodegradation capacity of bacteria and fungi isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil
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2017 (English)In: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 116, p. 48-57Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigated the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation by 95 bacterial and 160 fungal strains isolated from a former petrochemical plant. We tested whether soil origin, culture media type, and strain taxonomy influenced the degradation of added petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. Preliminary screening was based on two colorimetric tests using 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol and piodonitrotetrazolium indicators, to assess microbial strain tolerance to crude oil. Top-performing strains in these screening assays were then assessed for their ability to mineralize a mixture of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) for 49 days, using GC-MS quantification. The aerobic activity of these candidate strains was also assessed by respirometry over the first 24 days of incubation. On average, PAH degradation by microbial isolates from soil that was lightly, moderately, and highly contaminated with petroleum was equally efficient, and the type of culture medium used did not significantly impact mean biodegradation. Phylogenetic affiliation had a strong and significant effect on PAH biodegradation. Fungal isolates belonging to the group Sordariomycetes, and bacterial isolates belonging to the groups Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria showed high potential for PAH degradation. Three of the strains tested by GC-MS, Rhodococcus sp., Trichoderma tomentosum, and Fusarium oxysporum, significantly degraded all four PAH compounds in the mixture compared to the control. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Bioremediation, Respirometry, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), Crude oil, Colorimetric tests
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-59808 (URN)10.1016/j.ibiod.2016.09.030 (DOI)000390498700006 ()
Available from: 2017-01-16 Created: 2017-01-13 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
4. Effect of Medicago sativa L. and compost on organic and inorganic pollutant removal from a mixed contaminated soil and risk assessment using ecotoxicological tests
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Medicago sativa L. and compost on organic and inorganic pollutant removal from a mixed contaminated soil and risk assessment using ecotoxicological tests
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2016 (English)In: International journal of phytoremediation, ISSN 1522-6514, E-ISSN 1549-7879, Vol. 18, no 11, p. 1136-1147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several Gentle Remediation Options (GRO), e.g. plant-based options (phytoremediation), singly and combined with soil amendments, can be simultaneously efficient for degrading organic pollutants and either stabilizing or extracting trace elements (TE). Here, a 5-month greenhouse trial was performed to test the efficiency of Medicago sativa L., singly and combined with a compost addition (30% w/w), to treat soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC), Co and Pb collected at an auto scrap yard. After five months, total soil Pb significantly decreased in the compost-amended soil planted with M. sativa, but not total soil Co. Compost incorporation into the soil promoted PHC degradation, M. sativa growth and survival, and shoot Pb concentrations (3.8 mg/kg DW). Residual risk assessment after the phytoremediation trial showed a positive effect of compost amendment on plant growth and earthworm development. The O2 uptake by soil microorganisms was lower in the compost-amended soil, suggesting a decrease in microbial activity. This study underlined the benefits of the phytoremediation option based on M. sativa cultivation and compost amendment for remediating PHC and Pb contaminated soils.

Keywords
Cobalt, Petroleum Hydrocarbon, Phytoremediation, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, Lead
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-52380 (URN)10.1080/15226514.2016.1186594 (DOI)000381015200010 ()27216854 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84978230447 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-05-04 Created: 2016-05-04 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
5. Pilot scale ecopiling of petroleum hydrocarbons and metals contaminated soil
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-60837 (URN)
Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2018-05-02Bibliographically approved
6. Long-term phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons and metals contaminated soil
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons and metals contaminated soil
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-60838 (URN)
Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2018-05-02Bibliographically approved

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