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Updated reliability and normative values for the standing heel-rise test in healthy adults
The University of Waikato, New Zeeland.
University of Gothenburg.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Mid Sweden University.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6653-3414
University of Gothenburg.
2017 (English)In: Physiotherapy, ISSN 0031-9406, E-ISSN 1873-1465Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Objectives

The heel-rise test is used to assess the strength and endurance of the plantar flexors in everyday clinical practice. However, several factors may affect outcomes, including sex, age, body mass index and activity level. The aims of this study were to revisit the reliability and normative values of this test, and establish normative equations accounting for several factors.

Design

Cross-sectional observational study with test–retest.

Setting

Community.

Participants

Volunteers (n = 566, age 20 to 81 years).

Interventions

Subjects performed single-legged heel rises to fatigue, standing on a 10° incline. A subset of subjects (n = 32) repeated the test 1 week later. Reliability was quantified using intraclass (ICC) correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots {mean difference [95% confidence interval (CI)]}, whereas the impact of sex, age, body mass index and activity level on the number of heel rises was determined using non-parametric regression models.

Results

The test showed excellent reliability (ICC = 0.96), with mean between-day differences in the total number of heel-rise repetitions of 0.2 (95% CI −6.2 to 6.5) and 0.1 (95% CI −6.1 to 6.2) for right and left legs, respectively. Overall, males completed more repetitions than females (median 24 vs 21). However, older females (age >60 years) outperformed older males. According to the model, younger males with higher activity levels can complete the most heel rises.

Conclusions

The heel-rise test is highly reliable. The regression models herein can be employed by clinicians to evaluate the outcomes of heel-rise tests of individuals against a comparable normative population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017.
Keyword [en]
Lower extremity, Muscle strength, Physical examination, Regression analysis, Rehabilitation, Reproducibility of results
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences, Sport Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-61839DOI: 10.1016/j.physio.2017.03.002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-61839DiVA: diva2:1084873
Available from: 2017-03-27 Created: 2017-03-27 Last updated: 2017-04-06

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CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

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Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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  • asciidoc
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