To successfully grow and compete on intra-regional, bi-regional and global level, firms need to adopt cooperative behaviour through strategic alliances. The international business literature has observed the growing importance of strategic alliances (Beamish and Killing, 1997a, 1997b, 1997c; Contractor and Lorange, 2002; Reuer, 2004). International strategic alliances (ISAs) refer to inter-firm cooperative arrangements, whether based on equity or contract, that entail frequent interaction between autonomous firms based in different countries, for achieving the strategic objectives of the partner firms (Contractor and Lorange, 2002; Das and Teng, 2000). There are many types of strategic alliances, including horizontal alliances between competitors, vertical alliances between buyers and suppliers, and diagonal alliances between firms in different industries (Nooteboom, 1999).
Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. 315-344 p.