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The Swedish translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy – Cervical Dysplasia (FACIT-CD): linguistic validity and reliability of the Swedish version
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1569-6675
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1944-773X
FACITtrans, USA.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5200-1740
2017 (English)In: BMC Women's Health, ISSN 1472-6874, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 17, no 1, 1-10 p., 24Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Cervical dysplasia is a precancerous condition, which has been shown to create anxiety in women. To be able to investigate these women’s health-related quality of life, a disease-specific instrument is required. There does not seem to be a Swedish version of an instrument to screen for this specific disease. Therefore, this study aims to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy – Cervical Dysplasia (FACIT-CD) into a Swedish context and evaluate its linguistic validity and reliability.

Methods

The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) translation methodology was used, which consists of several steps including pilot testing of the FACIT-CD instrument through cognitive debriefing interviews. Ten women diagnosed with cervical dysplasia participated in the cognitive debriefing interviews. The internal consistency reliability of the Swedish FACIT-CD was estimated by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Homogeneity of the items was evaluated by corrected item-total correlations. The sample consists of 34 women who were diagnosed with cervical dysplasia.

Results

The translation and cross-cultural adaptation went smoothly without any problems for the majority of the items. The cognitive debriefing interviews indicated that the Swedish FACIT-CD consists of relevant items, is easy to understand and complete, and has unambiguous and comprehensive response categories. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation resulted in a Swedish FACIT-CD, which is conceptually and semantically equivalent to the English version and linguistically valid. The total scale of the Swedish FACIT-CD exhibited good internal consistency reliability with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.84, and all of the subscales exhibited acceptable value between 0.71 and 0.81 except the Relationships subscale, which had a value of 0.67. Finally, all but four items exceeded the acceptable level for the corrected item-total correlations of ≥ 0.20.

Conclusions

The Swedish FACIT-CD is conceptually and semantically equivalent to the English version and linguistically valid; further, it exhibits good internal consistency reliability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2017. Vol. 17, no 1, 1-10 p., 24
Keyword [en]
FACIT-CD, Health-related quality of life (HRQoL), Translation, Cross-cultural adaptation, Linguistic validity, Reliability
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Health and Caring Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-63469DOI: 10.1186/s12905-017-0381-3ISI: 000398317000002PubMedID: 28372548OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-63469DiVA: diva2:1094159
Available from: 2017-05-09 Created: 2017-05-09 Last updated: 2017-09-25Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Women receiving notification of an abnormal Pap smear result: - experiences and impact on health-related quality of life
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women receiving notification of an abnormal Pap smear result: - experiences and impact on health-related quality of life
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aim: The aim of this thesis was to investigate experiences of receiving notification of an abnormal Pap smear result and its impact on women’s health-related quality of life as well as to investigate women’s awareness of human papillomavirus.

 

Methods: In total, 176 women and 20 healthcare professionals participated. Data were collected through individual interviews (I, II) and a questionnaire (IV) including the instrument Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy – Cervical Dysplasia (FACIT-CD) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). For the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the FACIT-CD, and for evaluation of its linguistic validity and reliability, cognitive debriefing interviews and a questionnaire consisting of the Swedish instrument FACIT-CD was used. Data were analysed by content analysis (I, II) and by using statistical analysis (III, IV), while one part (III) was analysed according to FACIT translation methodology.  

 

Results: Women receiving notification of an abnormal Pap smear result have good overall HRQoL; they become anxious but not depressed. Reasons for anxiety were mainly that women misinterpreted the result as cancer, which could lead to lower attendance for further investigation, treatment and follow-up. To cope with the anxiety, women sought emotional support and information. They primarily used the Internet for information but also turned to healthcare professionals for information needs. Moreover, women had low awareness of HPV, its sexually transmitted nature, and its relationship to abnormal Pap smear results and cervical cancer. An awareness of HPV as a sexually transmitted infection did not lead to higher level of anxiety or more depression symptoms or worse HRQoL, compared to not being aware. Finally, the Swedish FACIT-CD is equivalent to the English version and linguistically valid and exhibited good internal consistency reliability.

 

Conclusion: Women have low awareness of HPV and abnormal Pap smear results, whereupon they misinterpret their test result as cancer. It is of importance that women understand their test result, in order to minimise anxiety as well as to maintain high attendance for investigation, treatment and follow-up of abnormalities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2017. 96 p.
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations, 294/2017
Keyword
Abnormal Pap smear, human papillomavirus, cervical cancer screening, health-related qualtiy of life, anxiety, depression, HADS, FACIT-CD, translation
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-68093 (URN)978-91-88357-86-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-10-13, V159, Stagneliusgatan 14, Kalmar, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
The Kamprad Family Foundation, 20150012
Available from: 2017-09-25 Created: 2017-09-25 Last updated: 2017-09-25Bibliographically approved

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