lnu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Education as Incorporation in Social and Ethnic Segregated Schools
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
2011 (English)In: Urban Education, 2011Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Education as Incorporation in Social and Ethnic Segregated Schools

In recent decades, the governance of the educational system has changed (Ball, 2008). Local conditions to meet the educational and religious interests of different social groups have increased as a result of decentralization and marketization (Daun, 2006). The cultural diversity and social heterogeneity in segregated urban housing is mirrored in the schools. The social differentiation between schools gets more and more obvious (Dovemark, 2008). The school-markets crowding out the strongest students from the already segregated municipal schools to middle class and better performing schools (Bunar, 2010). Muslim children enroll Muslim schools because of an increasing Islamophobia  (Modood, 2008) and an everlasting recomposition of student in the schools have an impact of learning and teaching (Andersson, 2001). The authorities, schools and families tries out different kind of pedagogies; ways of managing the future lives of the children (Lingard och Mills, 2007). The purpose of this paper is to analyze how different actors at a municipal school, a Muslim school and local authority in a mid sized city in Sweden argue for, and in practice try to accomplish, an inclusive educational setting for the children. The purpose is guided by the following question: What do the local school actors (politicians, civil servants, teachers and parents) regard to be a significant proficiency and social content for students in relation to formalized education? How do they motivate their pedagogies? What are the possibilities and constraints for a suitable pedagogy?

The paper takes its methodological point of departure in the critical discourse analysis (CDA) which conceives education as a discursive practice (Fairclough, 1995). “As a reconstructive methodology CDA provides a language to elaborate on how people are formed within discourses, and reproduces them in different ways as well as how they can form part of the transformation” (Nordin, 2010, s. 115).  From a theoretical point of view education is conceived as a formal practise “set in motion by discursive and organizational conflicts over incorporation” (Alexander, 2001, s. 246). The educational practice as an issue of incorporation is tied to particular times and places located in a web of practice (politic, economic, cultural, language, family.) The actors in educational practice, breaks off certain aspects of other practices to motivate and legitimize their pedagogies and therefore also construct different discourses of pathways to incorporation. I understand these pathways having different qualities i) assimilative ii) hyphenated iii) multicultural (Alexander, 2001).

 

 

Method

The empirical data was gathered during one year of theoretical informed ethnography (Willis och Trondman, 2002) in an urban educational setting. The ethnography is conducted in three different locations: (i) the municipal school (ii) the independent Muslim school (iii) and in an educational development group which main objective where to increase the academic outcomes of the schools. Methods applied were participation, observations, interviews and readings of local authority’s reports, school reports and local newspapers coverage’s to situate the schools and their history. I met the urban educational development group five times when producing policy directed to the municipal school and partly the Muslim school. I have discussed policy with headmasters and teachers. To get grip of what was going on when reading and analyzing the ethnography I therefore have integrated as much available information as possible on the historical background and original historical sources in which these discursive events were embedded (Wodak et al., 2009). During the research process I have reported back to different educational actors and discussed how school history and ongoing discursive practices, is connected to the struggle over incorporation and the formation of educational pathways.

Expected Outcomes

The main result visualizes an educational mix of incorporation strategies. The municipal school offer an overall hyphenated mode of incorporation. The hyphenated mode of incorporation is created by a fear of an increasing segregation due to the importance of social and ethnic mix embedded in Swedish educational and welfare policy. Several extended pedagogies was used such as a) avoiding cream spinning processes by attracting students from “Swedish schools” and keeping the already socially strong ones, b) redrawing the borders of the municipality schools attendance zone to increase the ethnical mix of pupils’ c) language immersion (sending immigrant children to “Swedish schools”). The Muslim school is considered to work towards hyphenated mode of incorporation as a middle-way because of external and internal constraints. Thus the recognition of pupils’ identities as well as a secular discourse was balanced by various groups of teacher and what they in broad sense considered as a socially acceptable religious and secular influence. Forces, especially the headmaster, operating at the boundary of the organization, promoted, by institutionalize Muslim education, a multicultural mode of incorporation and thereby gain right to be publicly admired as being different.

References

Alexander, Jeffrey C. (2001). Theorizing the Modes of Incorporation: "Assimilation, Hyphenation, and Multiculturasim as Varieties of Civil Participation. Sociological Theory, vol. 19, nr. 3.Andersson, Roger (2001). 'Spaces of Socialisation and Social Network Competion - a study of neighbourhood effects in Stockholm, Sweden'. I: Andersen, H. T. & Kempen, R. v. (red.) Governing European Cities. Social Fragmentation, social Exclusion and Urban Governance.Ball, Stephen J. (2008). The education debate. Bristol: Policy Press.Bunar, Nihad (2010). 'Choosing for quality or inequality: current perspectives on the implementation of school choice policy in Sweden'. Journal of Education Policy, vol. 25, nr. 1, s. 1 - 18.Daun, Holger (2006). School decentralization in the context of globalizing governance : international comparison of grassroots responses. Dordrecht: Springer.Dovemark, Marianne (2008). En skola - skilda världar. Segregering på valfrihetens grund - om kreativitet och performativitet i den svenska grundskolan. [One school - different worlds. Segregation on the basis of choice - about creativity and performativity in the Swedish compulsory school.]. Borås: Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för pedagogik.Fairclough, Norman (1995). Critical discourse analysis. London: Longman.Lingard, Bob & Mills, Martin (2007). Pedagogies making a difference: issues of social justice and inclusion. International Journal of Inclusive Education, vol. 11, nr. 3, s. 233-244.Modood, Taric (2008). Muslim, religious equality and secularism. I: Levey, G. B. & Modood, T. (red.) Secularism, religion, and multicultural citizenship. New York: Cambridge University Press.Nordin, Andreas (2010). The counter language of bildung: A movement towards a discursive concept of bildung. Pedagogisk Forskning i Sverige, vol. 15, nr. 2/3, s. 97-118.Willis, Paul & Trondman, Mats (2002). Manifesto for Ethnography. Cultural Studies ↔ Critical Methodologies, vol. 2 nr. 3, s. 394-402.Wodak, Ruth, de Cillia, Rudolf, Reisigl, Martin & Liebhart, Karin (2009). The discursive construction of national identity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011.
Keyword [en]
educational modes of incorporation, muslim schools, ethnicity, islam
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-68364OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-68364DiVA: diva2:1149337
Conference
ECER 2011
Available from: 2017-10-15 Created: 2017-10-15 Last updated: 2017-10-15

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

By organisation
Department of pedagogy
Pedagogy

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

Total: 1 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf