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Landfills and glass dumpsites as future bank accounts of resources – waste characterization and trace elements extraction
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. (ESEG)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8906-9271
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Environmental pollution and health threats as well as scarcity of raw materials, water, food and energy are among the main challenges our world are now facing. Simultaneously, landfills and open dumpsites still are the dominant global waste disposal option even with their long term environmental impacts in case of greenhouse gases and contaminated leachates. In this thesis, landfill mining is suggested as a tool that should be included in an enhanced circular economy model (repair, reuse and recycle + extract and recovery) by considering the extraction/recovery of the lost materials in landfills and dumpsites as secondary resources.

Characterization data (composition and physicochemical properties) is considered as a vital source for information for: i. the valorization of excavated wastes, ii. to explore potential hazards and iii. as an important tool for theassessment of the waste management systems and policies. In this thesis,excavated wastes from a classic landfill (Högbytorp in Sweden), a landfill buildup according to the European Directive requirements (Torma in Estonia) andhazardous glass dumpsite (Pukeberg in Sweden) was characterized as a centralstep in exploring the potential of recovering of valuables. In addition, the extraction of trace elements from waste glass and different finefractions were also investigated. The reduction-melting method was developedto extract hazardous concentrations of trace elements from old art and crystalglasses with more than (99%) of recovery of Pb, Cd and As. While threechelating agents (EDTA, DTPA and NTA) were used to extract Pb, Cd, Asand Zn from fine fraction (<2 mm) sampled from Pukeberg glasswork with anextraction efficiency of (40%). Besides, the fractionations of the metals Cu, Znand Cr in the fine fractions (<10 mm) excavated from Högbytorp and Tormalandfills were studied by using a modified sequential extraction procedure.

The findings of this thesis highlighted the need to consider the dumped wastesas secondary resources and landfills and dumpsites as future bank accounts offuture raw materials instead of being burden to the human health and theenvironment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2018.
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 308
Keyword [en]
Landfill mining, metals extraction, glass dumpsites, hazardous waste, chemical extraction, reduction-melting
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69898ISBN: 978-91-88761-15-6 (print)ISBN: 978-91-88761-16-3 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-69898DiVA: diva2:1174786
Public defence
2018-02-02, 15:57 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-01-17 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2018-01-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Composition of waste at an early EU-landfill of Torma in Estonia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Composition of waste at an early EU-landfill of Torma in Estonia
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2017 (English)In: Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment / Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, ISSN 2079-2115, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 113-117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Landfills represent a continuous environmental threat due to the emission of different greenhouse gases, which are mainly responsible for the climate changes, and the contaminated leachate that affects the surface and ground water recipients. The circular economy approach appeared as a useful solution to reduce the depletion of the Earth’s natural resources and the environmental risk effects by considering all of the lost resources like wastes including the landfills as potential secondary resources. It is well known that characterizing the composition of landfill waste is an essential step in specifying the recycling methods. In the current research the waste composition at one of the first EU regulations-compliant sanitary landfills (the Torma landfill in Estonia) was studied. The results showed that the fine fraction (<20 mm) represented 53% of the total excavated waste materials while the waste to energy fraction (plastics, woods etc.) was the highest within the coarse fraction (>20 mm). The present work emphasized that mining landfills can be a good solution either for extracting primary raw materials like metals, as a source for recovering energy, or for acquiring landfill space.

Keyword
Landfill mining, Waste composition, Characterization of landfill, Circular economy, Torma landfill
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69894 (URN)10.5829/ijee.2017.08.02.03 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2018-01-23Bibliographically approved
2. Speciation of Cu, Zn and Cr in excavated fine fraction of waste at two landfills
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Speciation of Cu, Zn and Cr in excavated fine fraction of waste at two landfills
(English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786Article, review/survey (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Mining landfills and open dumpsites is associated with (40-70% by mass) of fine fractions (particle sizes less than 20 or 10 mm). The composition of this fraction is typically dominated by soil and trace elements of high concentrations. In the present paper, a modified three steps sequential extraction procedure was used to fractionate Cu, Zn and Cr in the fine fraction sampled from Högbytorp (Sweden) and Torma (Estonia) landfills. The results showed that the major concentrations of Cu (98.8% and 98.6% by mass) and Cr (98.5% and 98.4% by mass) in fines from Högbytorp and Torma landfills, respectively, were found associated to the residual fraction. Noticeable concentrations of Cu and Cr were also found associated within the water soluble fraction, which could be regarded as a potential risk. The Zn displayed different behavior in the two fine fractions by distributing in all the sequential extraction fractions. Specifying the metals content using this method is essential to explore the valorization options of these fines as well as the potential environmental risks.

Keyword
Speciation; fractionation; sequential extraction; metals; fine fraction
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69895 (URN)
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2018-01-17
3. Characterization and toxicity of hazardous wastes from an old Swedish glasswork dump
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization and toxicity of hazardous wastes from an old Swedish glasswork dump
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(English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336Article, review/survey (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

More than 34 old glasswork sites in the southeastern part of Sweden pose a permanent threat to human and environmental health due to the presence of toxic metals in open dumps with glass waste. The possibility of leaching of metals from different fractions of the disposed waste needed to be assessed. In the present investigation, leachate from fine fraction (soil plus glass particles < 2 mm) was characterized as following: pH (7.3), TOC (< 2%), organic content (4.4%), moisture content (9.7), COD (163 mg/kg) and trace elements content, being the values in accordance to the Swedish guidelines for landfilling of inert materials. However, very high metals content was found in the fine fraction as well as in all colors of the glass fraction (≥ 2 mm), whose values were compatible to hazardous waste landfill class. Tests with Lepidium sativum growing in the fine fraction as substrate revealed chronic toxicity expressed as inhibition of root biomass growth in 11 out of 15 samples. Additionally, leachate from fine fractions posed acute toxicity to genetically modified E. coli (Toxi-Chromotest). This study highlights the importance of combining physicochemical characterization with toxicity tests for both solid waste and leachate obtained from different waste fractions for proper hazardousness assessment supporting decision making on remediation demands.

Keyword
Glass waste, old glassworks, trace elements, hazardous waste, ecotoxicity
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69896 (URN)
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2018-01-17
4. Reduction-melting extraction of trace elements from hazardous waste glass from an old glasswork’s dump in the southeastern part of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduction-melting extraction of trace elements from hazardous waste glass from an old glasswork’s dump in the southeastern part of Sweden
2017 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

At the southeastern part of Sweden, old art and crystal waste glass has been identified as a hazardous waste due to high weight concentrations of Pb (32.398%), Cd (0.085%) and As (1.976%). The reduction-melting technique was used to investigate the extraction of these trace elements from powder waste glass of particle size <1 mm. Following a factorial design technique, the experimental results of the reduction-melting method showed that 99.9% of Pb, 100% of Cd and 99% of As could be extracted. For a batch of 10 g powder waste glass, the found experimental and theoretical optimum operating conditions were 1100 oC of melting temperature, 5 g of Na2CO3, 2 g of carbon and 120 min of melting time. The reduction-melting method displayed promising results which might help in recycling the extracted trace elements and glass compared to the current used solution of landfilling as hazardous wastes. 

Keyword
Crystal glass, Extraction of trace elements, Glass melting, Old glassworks dumps, Hazardous glass waste, Reduction-melting method
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-68090 (URN)10.1007/s11356-017-0243-4 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-09-25 Created: 2017-09-25 Last updated: 2018-02-14

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