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A rapid and transient innate immune response to avian influenza infection in mallards
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. (Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst EEMiS)
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. (Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst EEMiS)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5629-0196
Uppsala University.
Uppsala University.
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2018 (English)In: Molecular Immunology, ISSN 0161-5890, E-ISSN 1872-9142, Vol. 95, p. 64-72Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The vertebrate innate immune system provides hosts with a rapid, non-specific response to a wide range of invading pathogens. However, the speed and duration of innate responses will be influenced by the co-evolutionary dynamics of specific host-pathogen combinations. Here, we show that low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAI) subtype H1N1 elicits a strong but extremely transient innate immune response in its main wildlife reservoir, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Using a series of experimental and methodological improvements over previous studies, we followed the expression of retinoic acid inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and myxovirus resistance gene (Mx) in mallards semi-naturally infected with low pathogenic H1N1. One day post infection, both RIG-I and Mx were significantly upregulated in all investigated tissues. By two days post infection, the expression of both genes had generally returned to basal levels, and remained so for the remainder of the experiment. This is despite the fact that birds continued to actively shed viral particles throughout the study period. We additionally show that the spleen plays a particularly active role in the innate immune response to LPAI. Waterfowl and avian influenza viruses have a long co-evolutionary history, suggesting that the mallard innate immune response has evolved to provide a minimum effective response to LPAIs such that the viral infection is brought under control while minimising the damaging effects of a sustained immune response.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018. Vol. 95, p. 64-72
Keyword [en]
Anas platyrhynchos, Zoonotic disease, Avian disease, Gene expression, Retinoic acid inducible gene 1 RIG-I, Myxovirus resistance gene Mx, Influenza A virus, LPAI, HPAI, Ecoimmunology, Tolerance
National Category
Immunology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72297DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2018.01.012ISI: 000428096900008PubMedID: 29407578OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-72297DiVA, id: diva2:1195739
Available from: 2018-04-06 Created: 2018-04-06 Last updated: 2018-04-06Bibliographically approved

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Helin, Anu S.Wille, MichelleWaldenström, JonasChapman, Joanne R.

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