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Vilka potentiella behandlingsalternativ finns det mot bakteriella infektionssjukdomar som ligger i fas 2-3 studier eller som man bedriver forskning på?
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
2018 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Resistance against antibiotics has become a global world problem. The effect of antibiotics is affected by the resistant bacteria and they cause infections that are difficult to treat. This is a major burden on the healthcare and leads to increased mortality. Globally, about 700,000 people die each year because of antibiotic resistance. By the year 2050 death rates are estimated to have increased to 10 million deaths per year due to the lack of effective treatment methods against multiresistant bacteria. Pharmaceutical companies’ research to develop new antibiotics is steadily decreasing, while multiresistant bacteria increase in number and spread. Bacteria evolve fast and highly resistant bacteria seem to evolve almost at the same pace as new drugs are discovered. As more antibiotics are used, more resistance is developed, so the pharmacy industry keep having to find new antimicrobial agents that the bacteria haven´t figured out how to protect themselves against yet. 

The aim of this study was to investigate different treatment options available for infectious diseases that are currently in phase 2 or 3 clinical trials studies or research is being conducted on?

This study is a literature study, five articles were selected from PubMed and analyzed. One study evaluates the effect of using new compounds to target a new potential pocket on DNA-gyrase. One study evaluates if silver can disturb the structure of the bacteria and thus increase the flow of antibiotics into the cell. Three studies evaluate the effect of nanoparticles containing metals such as silver or copper-zink-iron and the bacteriocin nisin. The current study shows that new compounds as well as new approaches to treating bacterial infections are expected to help stop this crisis. New strategies in the field of antibiotics include new drug targets, new drug delivery methods and new drug combinations.

The compounds produced and directed against the new pocket on DNA-gyrase were stopped due to toxicity but opens a new path for further research. Cells treated with silver had different membrane permeability, destabilized the structure of the peptidoglycan layer and increased production of hydroxyl radicals. Nanoparticles seem to be a potential antibacterial agent, the advantage of nanoparticles is that substances can be combined within nanoparticles and provide synergistic effects. With the help of nanotechnology, drug delivery systems can be improved as well as drug administration. More studies are needed though to investigate the safety of taking nanoparticles and to verify the results of this literature review. 

Abstract [sv]

Resistens mot antibiotika har blivit ett globalt världsproblem. Effekten av antibiotika påverkas av de resistenta bakterierna och detta leder till att infektioner blivit svårare att behandla. Detta ger belastning på sjukvården och leder till ökad dödlighet. I världen dör ca 700 000 människor till följd av antibiotikaresistensen och år 2050 beräknas dödsfallen stigit till 10 miljoner per år p.g.a. att det saknas effektiva behandlingsmetoder mot de multiresistenta bakterierna. För att behandla bakteriella infektioner krävs nya föreningar riktade mot bakteriella patogener samt nya tillvägagångsätt för att stoppa denna kris. Inom detta område är framgången låg och även om kliniska försök med antimikrobiella medel är säkra och effektiva, dröjer det flera år innan de är tillgängliga för klinisk användning. Nya strategier inom antibiotikafrågor innefattar nya läkemedelsmål, nya leveransmetoder till läkemedelsmålet och nya läkemedelskombinationer.

Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka vilka behandlingsalternativ som finns tillgängliga mot infektionssjukdomar som ligger i fas 2-3 studier, eller som man bedriver forskning på. Arbetet är en litteraturstudie och de vetenskapliga artiklarna är hämtade från databasen Pubmed. I detta arbete har fem studier analyserats. Studie I visar att föreningarna som framställts och riktades mot den nya fickan på DNA-gyras avbröts p.g.a. toxicitet. I resterande studier (II, VI och V) visade att nanopartiklar är ett potentiellt alternativ för att avdöda bakterier. Studie III visar att celler som behandlats med silver hade annan membranpermeabilitet, destabiliserade peptidoglykanlagret och ökad produktion av hydroxylradikaler. Mer forskning och studier krävs för att undersöka riskerna med att administrera nanopartiklar samt verifiera resultaten i denna litteraturstudie och framförallt krävs det mer forskning kring nya potentiella antimikrobiella medel i allmänhet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. , p. 34
Keywords [sv]
antibiotika, nanopartiklar, nanopartikel, resistens, antibiotikaresistens, ENABLE, ENABLE-projektet
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-74368OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-74368DiVA, id: diva2:1206084
Educational program
Bachelor of Science Programme in Pharmacy, 180 credits
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-15 Last updated: 2018-05-16Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
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