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Farmakologisk behandling vid opioidberoende: Finns det skillnader i effekt mellan buprenorfin- och metadonbehandling?
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
2018 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Pharmacological treatment of opioid dependence : Is there any difference in efficacy between buprenorphine and methadone treatment? (English)
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Heroin är en opiat ursprungen från opiumvallmon och är starkt förknippad med beroende och död. När heroin och andra kortverkande opiater binder in till μ-opioidreceptorer i hjärnan sker en ökad frisättning av signalsubstansen dopamin och en stark känsla av eufori infinner sig. Vid upprepat intag sker förändringar i hjärnan; belöningseffekten minskar medan antibelöningseffekterna ökar och cravings och abstinensymptom blir allt tydligare vid frånvaro av drogen. Vid läkemedelsassisterad rehabilitering vid opiatberoende (LARO) används förutom psykosocial behandling även långverkande opioider såsom opioidagonisten metadon och den partiella opioidagonisten buprenorfin, för att återställa homeostasen och reducera cravings och abstinenssymptom som opioidberoendet har skapat. Metadon är effektivt vid beroendebehandling men dess risker begränsar dess användning. Buprenorfin har lägre överdospotential men eventuellt sämre effekt än metadon. Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att undersöka skillnad i effekt mellan buprenorfinpreparat och metadon vid behandling av opioidberoende. Metod: Arbetet är en litteraturstudie baserat på fem vetenskapliga studier vilka har erhållits via sökning i PubMed samt Cochrane Library. De aspekter som avhandlats är; fullföljande och retention av behandling, samtidigt sidomissbruk av opiater samt allvarliga incidenter och biverkningar. Resultat: De inkluderade studierna i denna litteraturstudie visade att metadon är bättre på att bevara patienter i behandling medan buprenorfin mer effektivt kan minska sidomissbruket av opiater. Ju högre doser som användes, desto fler deltagare stannade kvar i behandling och desto färre urinprover rapporterades positiva för sidomissbruk av opiater. Få allvarliga incidenter rapporterades från studierna. Slutsats: Både metadon och buprenorfinpreparaten har sina för- och nackdelar.  Då behandling med metadon tidigare bevisats vara mer riskfyllt bör buprenorfinpreparaten utgöra förstahandsval, men vid otillräcklig effekt bör byte till metadon ske. Detta överrensstämmer med riktlinjerna i Sverige idag. Dock tycks det finnas anledning att i framtida studier undersöka dos-effekt-samband för både dessa preparat, samt också att fokusera på den initiala fasen vid behandling med buprenorfin.

Abstract [en]

Background: Heroin is an opiate from the opium poppy which is strongly associated with dependence, overdose and death. When heroin and other opiates binds to the μ-opioid receptors located in the brain, dopamine is released from the ventral tegmental area and a strong feeling of euphoria arises. Continuous intake of opioids cause changes in the brain and the feeling of euphoria will be less distinct during drug intake. Instead, cravings and abstinence, will be more distinctive in absence of the drug and causes drug-abusers to continue to use the drug. The cravings and abstinence is due to an overactive HPA-axis and amygdala. This overactivity can be reduced by treatment with long lasting opioids that is used in treatment of opioid dependence. The development of opioid maintenance treatment started in the US during the early 1960s. A few years later, opioid dependent people could join the first opioid maintenance treatment program in Uppsala, Sweden. The opioid maintenance treatment involves both pharmacological and psychosocial treatment. There are two main substances available for opioid maintenance treatment in Sweden: methadone, a full μ-opioid receptor agonist and buprenorphine, a partial μ-opioid receptor agonist. Methadone has been proven to be very efficacious treating opioid dependence. However, the risk of overdose leading to respiratory depression, limits its usefulness. Buprenorphine on the other hand, has a lower risk of toxicity but may not have same efficacy as methadone. Aim: The purpose of this literature study is to examine the efficacy of buprenorphine versus methadone among patients in opioid maintenance treatment. Methods: Five different randomized, controlled trials were selected from PubMed and The Cochrane Library to be included in this literature study. To limit this degree project, four variables was selected: completion and retention in treatment, use of illicit opiates during treatment and adverse events associated with treatment medication. Results: According to the findings in the five studies, methadone can be considered as a better option than buprenorphine when it comes to retaining participants in treatment. However, buprenorphine is somewhat more effective reducing the illicit use of opiates. When both methadone and buprenorphine were used in higher doses, more participants stayed in treatment. Also, higher doses were associated with a lower portion of urine samples positive for illicit opiates. Few adverse events were documented from the studies. Conclusion: Both methadone and buprenorphine have advantages and disadvantages. Since treatment with methadone is more perilous, buprenorphine should be considered as first-line treatment. But if the clinical effect remains insufficient, a transition to methadone treatment should occur, all according to the guidelines of opioid maintenance treatment in Sweden. However, future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between dose and effect of buprenorphine and possibly also methadone. Furthermore, more focus should be added on the initiation phase of treatment with buprenorphine.   

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. , p. 46
Keywords [en]
methadone, buprenorphine, opioid dependence
Keywords [sv]
Metadon, buprenorfin, opioidberoende
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-75068OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-75068DiVA, id: diva2:1213781
Subject / course
Pharmacy
Educational program
Bachelor of Science Programme in Pharmacy, 180 credits
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2018-06-05 Created: 2018-06-05 Last updated: 2018-06-05Bibliographically approved

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