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On the use of models for the dependability and security of transit systems and infrastructures: A multi-year industrial experience report
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2833-7196
2012 (English)In: International Journal of Critical Computer-Based Systems, ISSN 1757-8779, E-ISSN 1757-8787, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 229-244Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Computer-based transit systems are increasingly large, distributed and heterogeneous; in one word: complex. Being 'complex' and 'open' systems, their protection against both natural faults and deliberate attacks is far from being trivial. In this paper, we report a survey of a ten years industrial experience in infrastructure and threat modelling for the assurance of reliability, safety and security in different phases of the life-cycle of rail transit systems. Described by a set of case-study applications, the experience highlights the importance of mastering advanced modelling paradigms through a strict and constant cooperation with universities and research institutes. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 3, no 3, p. 229-244
Keywords [en]
Critical, Dependability, Experience, Modelling, Railway, Report, Security, Survey, Systems, Transit
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-73666DOI: 10.1504/IJCCBS.2012.050311Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84878707681OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-73666DiVA, id: diva2:1213876
Note

Export Date: 26 April 2018; Article; Correspondence Address: Flammini, F.; Ansaldo STS, Via Argine 425, 80147 Naples, Italy; email: Francesco.Flammini@ansaldo-sts.com; References: Abbaneo, C., Flammini, F., Lazzaro, A., Marmo, P., Mazzocca, N., Sanseviero, A., UML based reverse engineering for the verification of railway control logics (2007) Proceedings of International Conference on Dependability of Computer Systems, DepCoS-RELCOMEX 2006, pp. 3-10. , DOI 10.1109/DEPCOS-RELCOMEX.2006.55, 4024026, Proceedings of International Conference on Dependability of Computer Systems, DepCoS-RELCOMEX 2006; Amendola, A.M., Impagliazzo, L., Marmo, P., Mongardi, G., Sartore, G., Architecture and safety requirements of the ACC railway interlocking system (1996) IEEE Proc. 2nd Annual Int. Computer Performance & Dependability Symposium (IPDS'96), pp. 21-29. , Urbana Champaign, IL, USA; Banerjee, P., Friedrich, R., Morell, L., Open innovation at HP labs (2010) IEEE Computer, November, 43 (11), pp. 88-90; Bernardi, S., Flammini, F., Marrone, S., Merseguer, J., Papa, C., Vittorini, V., Model-driven availability evaluation of railway control systems (2011) Proc. 30th Intl. Conf. on Computer Safety, Reliability & Security, SAFECOMP'11, pp. 467-479. , 19-21 September, Naples; Bernardi, S., Flammini, F., Marrone, S., Mazzocca, N., Merseguere, J., Nardone, R., Vittorini, V., Enabling the usage of UML in the verification of railway systems: The DAM-rail approach (2011) Reliability Engineering & System Safety Journal, Special Issue on SAFECOMP; Bocchetti, G., Flammini, F., Pappalardo, A., Pragliola, C., Dependable integrated surveillance systems for the physical security of metro railways (2009) Proc. 3rd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras (ICDSC 2009), , 30 August to 2 September, Como, Italy; Bondavalli, A., Falai, L., Porcarelli, S., Sabina, S., Zanini, F., Available and safe message freshness detection algorithm (2010) International Journal of Critical Computer-Based Systems, 1 (4), pp. 336-363; Alessandro, C., Roberto, D.M., Fernando, S., Fabio, P., Leonardo, I., Arturo, A., A new methodology and tool set to execute software test on real-time safety-critical systems (2005) Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3463, pp. 293-304. , Dependable Computing - EDCC 2005: 5th European Dependable Computing Conference, Proceedings; Casola, V., Esposito, M., Mazzocca, N., Flammini, F., Freight train monitoring: A case-study for the pSHIELD project (2012) IEEE Proc. Sixth International Conference on Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing (IMIS), pp. 597-602; (1999) EN 50126 Railway Applications - The Specification and Demonstration of Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS), , CENELEC; (2001) EN 50159-2 Railway Applications - Communication, Signalling and Processing Systems - Part 2: Safety-related Communication in Open Transmission Systems, , CENELEC; Cimatti, A., Giunchiglia, F., Mongardi, G., Romano, D., Torielli, F., Traverso, P., Formal Verification of a Railway Interlocking System using Model Checking (1998) Formal Aspects of Computing, 10 (4), pp. 361-380; Cozzolino, A., Flammini, G., Galli, V., Lamberti, M., Poggi, G., Pragliola, C., Evaluating the effects of MJPEG compression on motion tracking in metro railway surveillance (2012) Proc. 14th Intl. Conf. on Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems, ACIVS 2012, pp. 142-154. , Blanc-Talon, J. et al. (Eds.), 4-7 September, Brno, Czech Republic, Springer LNCS 7517; De Nicola, G., Di Tommaso, P., Esposito, R., Flammini, F., Orazzo, A., A hybrid testing methodology for railway control systems (2004) LNCS 3219: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 23rd International Conference, SAFECOMP'04, pp. 116-135. , 21-24 September, Potsdam, Germany; De Nicola, G., Di Tommaso, P., Esposito, R., Flammini, F., Marmo, P., Orazzo, A., A grey-box approach to the functional testing of complex automatic train protection systems (2005) LNCS 3463: The Fifth European Dependable Computing Conference, EDCC-5, pp. 305-317. , 20-22 April, Budapest, Hungary; Di Lorenzo, G., Flammini, F., Iacono, M., Marrone, S., Moscato, F., Vittorini, V., The software architecture of the OsMoSys multisolution framework (2007) Proc. 2nd International Conference on Performance Evaluation Methodologies and Tools, VALUETOOLS'07, pp. 1-10. , 23-25 October, Nantes, France; Di Tommaso, P., Rosaria, E., Pietro, M., Antonio, O., Hazard analysis of complex distributed railway systems (2003) Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems, pp. 283-292. , Proceedings - 22nd International Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems, SRDS 2003; Esposito, R., Sanseviero, A., Lazzaro, A., Marmo, P., Formal verification of ERTMS Euroradio safety critical protocol (2003) Proc. FORMS 2003, Symposium on Formal Methods for Railway Operation and Control Systems, , 15-16 May, Budapest, Hungary; Fantechi, A., Flammini, F., Gnesi, S., Formal methods for intelligent transportation systems (2012) Proc. 5th International Symposium on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation, ISoLA'12, , Margaria, T., Steffen, B. and Merten, M. (Eds.), Part II, Springer LNCS 7610; Fiaschetti, A., Lavorato, F., Suraci, V., Palo, A., Taglialatela, A., Morgagni, A., Baldelli, R., Flammini, F., On the use of semantic technologies to model and control security, privacy and dependability in complex systems (2011) Proc. 30th Intl. Conf. on Computer Safety, Reliability & Security, SAFECOMP'11, pp. 467-479. , 19-21 September, Naples; Flammini, F., (2012) Railway Safety, Reliability, and Security: Technologies and Systems Engineering, , IGI Global, Hershey, USA, doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-1643-1; Flammini, F., Mazzocca, N., Security risk management of railway transportation systems (2009) Railway Transportation: Policies, Technology and Perspectives, pp. 385-398. , Nova Science Publishers, New York, USA; Flammini, F., Bologna, S., Vittorini, V., Computer safety, reliability, and security (2011) 30th International Conference, SAFECOMP 2011, , 19-22 September, Naples, Italy, Proceedings, Springer LNCS 6894; Flammini, F., Gaglione, A., Mazzocca, N., Pragliola, C., Optimization of security system design by quantitative risk assessment and genetic algorithms (2011) International Journal of Risk Analysis and Management (IJRAM), 15 (2-3), pp. 205-221; Flammini, F., Lazzaro, A., Mazzocca, N., Modeling of logic code for reverse engineering, verification and refactoring (2011) The International Journal of Safety & Security Engineering, February, 1 (1), pp. 77-94; Flammini, F., Marrone, S., Mazzocca, N., Vittorini, V., Petri net modeling of physical vulnerability (2011) Proc. The 6th Intl. Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, CRITIS'11; Flammini, F., Mazzocca, N., Pappalardo, A., Pragliola, C., Vittorini, V., Augmenting surveillance system capabilities by exploiting event correlation and distributed attack detection (2011) Proc. 2011 Intl. Workshop on Security and Cognitive Informatics for Homeland Defence (SeCIHD'11), Co-located with ARES'11, LNCS 6908, pp. 191-204. , Tjoa, A.M. et al. (Eds.); Flammini, F., Pappalardo, A., Pragliola, C., Vittorini, V., A robust approach for on-line and off-line threat detection based on event tree similarity analysis (2011) Proc. Workshop on Multimedia Systems for Surveillance (MMSS) in Conjunction with 8th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal-Based Surveillance, pp. 414-419. , 29-30 August, Klagenfurt, Austria; Flammini, F., Di Tommaso, P., Lazzaro, A., Pellecchia, R., Sanseviero, A., The simulation of anomalies in the functional testing of the ERTMS/ETCS trackside system (2005) Proc. 9th IEEE Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering, HASE'05, pp. 131-139. , 12-14 October, Heidelberg, Germany; Flammini, F., Iacono, M., Marrone, S., Mazzocca, N., Using repairable fault trees for the evaluation of design choices for critical repairable systems (2005) Proceedings of the 9th IEEE Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering, HASE'05, pp. 163-172. , 12-14 October, Heidelberg, Germany; Flammini, F., Gaglione, A., Pragliola, C., Model-based early warning and decision support to improve infrastructure surveillance (2009) ERCIM News, (78), pp. 43-44. , July; Flammini, F., Gaglione, A., Mazzocca, N., Pragliola, C., Quantitative security risk assessment and management for railway transportation infrastructures (2009) Proc. 3rd International Workshop on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, CRITIS'08, LNCS 5508, pp. 180-189; Flammini, F., Gaglione, A., Mazzocca, N., Moscato, V., Pragliola, C., On-line integration and reasoning of multi-sensor data to enhance infrastructure surveillance (2009) Journal of Information Assurance and Security (JIAS), 4 (2), pp. 183-191; Flammini, F., Marrone, S., Mazzocca, N., Vittorini, V., A new modelling approach to the safety evaluation of N-modular redundant computer systems in presence of imperfect maintenance (2009) Reliability Engineering & System Safety (RESS), 94 (9), pp. 1422-1432. , September; Flammini, F., Mazzocca, N., Orazzo, A., Automatic instantiation of abstract tests to specific configurations for large critical control systems (2009) Journal of Software Testing, Verification & Reliability (STVR), 19 (2), pp. 91-110; Flammini, F., Mazzocca, N., Pragliola, C., Vittorini, V., A study on multiformalism modelling of critical infrastructures (2009) Proc. 3rd International Workshop on Critical Information Infrastructures Security, CRITIS'08, LNCS, 5508, pp. 336-343; Flammini, F., Gaglione, A., Mazzocca, N., Pragliola, C., DETECT: A novel framework for the detection of attacks to critical infrastructures (2008) Safety, Reliability and Risk Analysis: Theory, Methods and Applications, Proc. ESREL'08, pp. 105-112. , Martorell et al. (Eds.), 22-25 September, Valencia, Spain; Flammini, F., Gaglione, A., Mazzocca, N., Moscato, V., Pragliola, C., Wireless sensor data fusion for critical infrastructure security (2008) Advances in Soft Computing 53: Proc. International Workshop on Computational Intelligence in Security for Information Systems, CISIS'08, pp. 92-99. , 23-24 October, Genoa, Italy; Flammini, F., Mazzocca, N., Vittorini, V., New paradigms and tools for high-assurance systems modeling (2008) ERCIM News, (75), pp. 28-30. , October Special Issue on Safety-Critical Software; Flammini, F., Gaglione, A., Ottello, F., Pappalardo, A., Pragliola, C., Tedesco, A., Towards wireless sensor networks for railway infrastructure monitoring (2010) Proc. ESARS 2010, pp. 1-6. , 19-21 October, Bologna, Italy; Flammini, F., Mazzocca, N., Moscato, F., Pappalardo, A., Pragliola, C., Vittorini, V., Multiformalism techniques for critical infrastructure modeling (2010) International Journal of Systems of Systems Engineering (IJSSE), 2 (1), pp. 19-37; Flammini, F., Marrone, S., Mazzocca, N., Vittorini, V., Modelling system reliability aspects of ERTMS/ETCS by fault trees and Bayesian networks (2006) Safety and Reliability for Managing Risk: Proceedings of the 15th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL'06, pp. 2675-2683. , 18-22 September, Estoril, Portugal; Flammini, F., Marrone, S., Mazzocca, N., Nardone, R., Vittorini, V., Model-driven V&V processes for computer based control systems: A unifying perspective (2012) Proc. 5th International Symposium on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation, ISoLA'12, pp. 190-204. , Margaria, T., Steffen, B. and Merten, M. (Eds.), Part II, Springer LNCS 7610; Nicol, D.M., Sanders, W.H., Trivedi, K.S., Model-based evaluation: From dependability to security (2004) IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 1 (1), pp. 48-65; Sanders, W.H., Integrated frameworks for multi-level and multi-formalism modeling (1999) Proc. 8th Intl. Workshop on Petri Nets and Performance Models, p. 2; Senesi, F., Malangone, R., Piccolo, A., Galdi, V., Use of formal languages for the analyses and evaluation of test specifications of the Italian high speed network ERTMS system (2006) Ingegneria Ferroviaria, p. 957. , (Railway Engineering), December; (2006) ERTMS/ETCS Class 1 Issue 2.3.9 Subset 026, , UNISIG; Zimmermann, A., Hommel, G., Towards modeling and evaluation of ETCS real-time communication and operation (2005) Journal of Systems and Software, 77 (1), pp. 47-54. , DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2003.12.039, PII S0164121204001360, Parallel and Distributed Real-Time Systems

Available from: 2018-06-05 Created: 2018-06-05 Last updated: 2018-06-05

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