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Servicescape for Digital Wellness Services for Young Elderly
Åbo Akademi University, Finland.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3336-3409
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis digital wellness services (DWSs) are in focus. The DWSs are services provided through digital devices, such as smartphones, bracelets, and tablets, by using digital environments such as Internet, cloud services, and websites. They can provide users with information that has an impact on their wellness, such as pulse, nutrition, and training guidance. The focus for this work on DWSs is on the age group of young elderly (60 – 75 years old). They belong to a group who were born long before digital devices and environments emerged and this factor may affect their motivation and willingness to use and benefit from DWSs.

This thesis offers a framework for a digital servicescape that enables young elderly to benefit from DWSs. DWSs are produced and offered in digital servicescapes, where the interaction between the service providers and the service users occurs. The interaction can take place in different spaces like fitness studios, shopping malls or banks. DWSs for large groups of young elderly will require an ecosystem of stakeholders to develop, distribute, maintain, support, and further develop these services. An ecosystem builds on policies, strategies, processes, information, technologies, applications and stakeholders, and includes people who build, sell, manage and use the system. In order to understand the ecosystem, it is necessary to have a holistic approach to work out how its context, technology, stakeholders, and use interact with each other. A digital servicescape offers the conceptual basis for the ecosystem to form, evolve, and survive and produces platforms on which it is easy, effective, and productive to access and use DWSs.

The described interaction between digital servicescape and DWSs for improved health leads to the research question: How can a digital servicescape enhance young elderly’s use of Digital Wellness Services (DWSs)?

In order to answer the research question, the thesis presents different approaches that influence the young elderly’s capabilities and willingness to use and benefit from DWSs. If the young elderly follow recommendations to apply DWSs they will benefit in terms of healthier aging, reduced ill health, and a better quality of life. For developers and providers of DWSs development work will open up business opportunities if they understand the needs and demands of the young elderly. In addition, DWSs can contribute to significant health, social, and economic benefits for society in general. Proactive wellness programs for young elderly will have cumulative effects on the conditions for good health. The digital servicescape is a conceptual framework for future work on actually building the necessary platforms for DWSs.

The work on this thesis follows an explorative approach. The data collection was carried out through surveys, literature review, and focus groups after which the data was sorted, analysed and interpreted. As the work progressed, a need arose to obtain insights from additional perspectives with the consequence that the additional data contributed to a deeper knowledge of the young elderly, DWSs and digital servicescape.

The young elderly are, as a group, a very large market consisting of almost 100 million people in Europe alone. For the young elderly, digitalisation has been a part of their lives and its development has provided them with new opportunities to communicate. To them the interface on their digital device is where the interaction with a service provider occurs. Behind the interface, a digital servicescape and an ecosystem provide the necessary tools for the young elderly to achieve the wellness they seek. Nevertheless, to understand the target group it is important to consider four wellness dimensions: i) physical wellness, ii) social wellness, iii) emotional wellness, and iv) intellectual wellness. Together, the four dimensions form a holistic wellness approach to motivate young elderly to use DWSs. The research results show that the young elderly need to be motivated to adopt the services offered. Motivation that affects the young elderly is both intrinsic and extrinsic and this should be considered when developing and providing DWSs and digital servicescapes. Therefore, the service providers have to meet the expectations, needs, and demands of the young elderly and develop services that are suited for the target group. However, this is not enough, as this research shows that the young elderly want to be in a context where they feel safe.

Information systems offer a basis for communication and interaction with and through digital devices such as smartphones, tablets, and bracelets. The Internet constitutes a platform for service and social interaction. Services offered on the Web, make it possible to do shopping, be entertained, entertain, and be involved in education, research, business and much more. The internet forms an important part of the infrastructure for DWSs and digital servicescapes.

An efficient and well-designed DWS and its servicescape can create a win-win-win situation. The first part is the young elderly who can benefit from DWSs by increasing their chances of a longer, healthier, and happier life and thereby achieve wellness. The second win situation concerns the service developers and providers who can build a business by designing well-working DWSs aimed at the young elderly. Finally, the third win situation is about family, friends, and society. Well-designed DWSs can be beneficial for family and friends to help the young elderly to achieve wellness and require less support from family and friends. For society in general, there are financial benefits, as healthier and happier young elderly will reduce the demand for health care and support. Together the three win-win-win scenarios build an opportunity for a better tomorrow for all concerned.

 

This thesis has created a foundation for continued research, testing, and development of DWSs and digital servicescapes. It has shown that there is a need for deeper understanding of the benefits a well-designed servicescape for DWSs can bring to people in general and to the group of young elderly in particular. Furthermore, there is a need for further research in the win-win-win situations when young elderly get access to digital wellness devices. A particularly interesting avenue of research would be to investigate how that digital servicescape could be designed and whether society should provide devices free of charge, at discount or with some other business model.

Abstract [sv]

I denna avhandling är digitala wellnesstjänster (digital wellness services, i fortsättningen förkortat DWS[1]) i fokus. DWS är tjänster som tillhandahålls i digitala miljöer såsom internet, molntjänster och webbplatser, via digitala enheter, såsom smartphones, aktivitetsarmband och surfplattor. De kan hjälpa användaren med information som påverkar användarens välbefinnande, som till exempel puls, närings- och träningsråd.

Fokus för arbetet ligger på åldersgruppen yngre äldre (60–75 år). De tillhör en grupp som föddes långt innan digitala enheter- och miljöer växte fram, vilket kan påverka deras motivation och vilja att använda och dra nytta av DWS.

Avhandlingen söker formulera ett ramverk för digitala servicelandskap för att göra det möjligt för yngre äldre att dra nytta av DWS. Samspelet mellan tjänsteleverantörerna och DWS användarna sker i digitala servicelandskap, i olika miljöer som till exempel gym, köpcentrum eller banker. DWS kräver ett ekosystem av intressenter för att utveckla, distribuera, underhålla, stödja och vidareutveckla tjänsterna. Ett ekosystem består av policyer, strategier, processer, information, teknik, applikationer och intressenter och inkluderar personer som bygger, säljer, hanterar och använder systemet.

För att förstå ett ekosystem är det nödvändigt att ha en helhetssyn om hur dess kontext, teknik, intressenter samt användning och resultat interagerar med varandra. Ett servicelandskap erbjuder den konceptuella grunden för att ekosystemet bildas, utvecklas och överlever. Digitala servicelandskap erbjuder plattformar där det ska vara enkelt, effektivt och produktivt att komma i åtnjutande av DWS, utveckla och förbättra användningen av dem samt att fortsätta användningen av tjänsterna i tillräcklig grad för att uppnå hälsoeffekter. Det digitala servicelandskapet erbjuder en grund för fortsatt arbete för att bygga de nödvändiga plattformarna DWS.

Det beskrivna samspelet mellan DWS och digitala servicelandskap utgör basen för forskningsfrågan: Hur kan ett digitalt servicelandskap förbättra yngre äldres användning av DWS?

I avhandlingen studeras och presenteras olika sätt att närma sig de faktorer som påverkar de yngre äldres förmåga och vilja att använda och dra nytta av DWS. Om de yngre äldre följer rekommendationerna för att tillämpa DWS, kommer tjänsterna att gynna dem när det gäller ett hälsosammare åldrande, minskad ohälsa och högre livskvalitet. För utvecklare och leverantörer av DWS kommer det att öppna affärsmöjligheter under förutsättning att de förstår de yngre äldres behov och krav. Dessutom kan DWS bidra till betydande hälso-, sociala och ekonomiska fördelar för samhället. Proaktiva wellnessprogram för yngre äldre kommer att ha kumulativa effekter på förutsättningarna för en god hälsa.

Arbetet med denna avhandling bygger på en explorativ ansats. Datainsamlingen genomfördes med hjälp av enkäter, litteraturgenomgång och fokusgrupper, och det data som samlades in sorterades, analyserades och tolkades. Under arbetet utvecklades behovet av att få insikter från ytterligare perspektiv med konsekvensen att data adderades, vilket bidrog till en djupare kunskap om de yngre äldre, DWS och digitala servicelandskap.

De yngre äldre utgör som grupp en mycket stor marknad bestående av närmare 100 miljoner människor i Europa. För yngre äldre har digitaliseringen utgjort en del av deras liv. Digitaliseringen har gett dem nya möjligheter att kommunicera, och samspelet med serviceleverantörer sker via gränssnittet på digitala enheter. Men bakom gränssnittet finns, inom ramen för ett digitalt servicelandskap, ett ekosystem som innehåller de nödvändiga verktygen för de yngre äldre att uppnå det välbefinnande de söker. För att förstå målgruppen är det dock viktigt att beakta de fyra hälsodimensionerna: i) fysisk hälsa, ii) socialt välbefinnande, iii) känslomässigt välbefinnande och iv) intellektuellt välbefinnande. Tillsammans utgör de fyra dimensionerna ett helhetsperspektiv på yngre äldres välbefinnande, och de utgör en viktig grund för att motivera de yngre äldre att använda DWS. Resultatet av forskningen visar att de yngre äldre måste motiveras för att anamma de erbjudna tjänsterna. Motivation som påverkar yngre äldre kan vara av både inre och yttre karaktär och måste därför beaktas vid utveckling och tillhandahållande av DWS. Därför måste serviceleverantörerna uppfylla de förväntningar, behov och krav som de yngre äldre har och utveckla tjänster som är lämpade för målgruppen. Detta räcker emellertid inte, eftersom avhandlingens resultat visar att de yngre äldre vill vara i en kontext där de känner sig trygga

Informationssystem utgör en bas för att möjliggöra kommunikation och interaktion med och via digitala enheter som smartphones, surfplattor och aktivitetsarmband. Internet utgör en plattform för service och social interaktion. Tjänster som erbjuds på internet gör det möjligt att handla, bli underhållen, underhålla och vara delaktig i utbildning, forskning, affärer och mycket mer. Internet är med andra ord en viktig del av infrastrukturen för DWS och digitala servicelandskap.

En effektiv och väldesignad DWS och dess servicelandskap kan skapa win-win-win-situationer. Den första handlar om de yngre äldre som kan dra nytta av DWS genom att öka sina chanser för ett längre, hälsosammare och lyckligare liv och därigenom uppnå välbefinnande. Den andra win-situationen handlar om utvecklare och leverantörer som kan skapa affärsmöjligheter genom att lyckas med att utforma väl fungerande DWS som riktar sig till de yngre äldre. Slutligen handlar den tredje win-situationen om familj, vänner och samhälle. För familjer och vänner kan väl utformade DWS vara fördelaktiga eftersom de hjälper de yngre äldre till god hälsa och därmed minskar behovet av insatser från familj och vänner. För samhället finns det ekonomiska fördelar eftersom hälsosammare och lyckligare yngre äldre vid god hälsa kommer att minska efterfrågan på vård och omsorg. Tillsammans utgör de tre win-situationerna en möjlighet till en bättre morgondag för alla berörda.

Denna avhandling har skapat en grund för fortsatt forskning, testning och utveckling av DWS och dess digitala servicelandskap. Den har visat att det finns ett behov av en djupare förståelse för de fördelar som ett välutvecklat servicelandskap för DWS kan erbjuda människor i allmänhet och gruppen yngre äldre i synnerhet. Dessutom finns det grund för ytterligare forskning kring win-win-win-situationer när yngre äldre är försedda med digitala wellnessenheter. Det skulle vara intressant att lägga kraft på hur dessa enheter skall konstrueras och om samhället ska tillhandahålla enheterna gratis, med rabatt eller med någon annan lösning.

[1] Fortsättningsvis i detta abstrakt används DWS för både singular och plural.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Åbo: Åbo Akademi University Press , 2018. , p. 236
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer and Information Sciences Computer Science, Information Systems; Economy, Marketing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79339ISBN: 978-952-12-3770-6 (print)ISBN: 978-952-12-3771-3 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-79339DiVA, id: diva2:1274714
Public defence
2018-12-14, Auditorium Ekwall, Gadolinia, Porthansgatan 3, Åbo, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Avhandlingen har genomförts med ekonomiskt stöd av Kalmar Handlande Borgares Stiftelse

Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-02 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Young-elderly and digital services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Young-elderly and digital services
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Abstract. In this paper we show what kind of services the group known as young-elderly (60-75 years old) using on Internet. To been able to develop more effective information systems (IS) we want to know more about the actual demands, needs and wants by the young-elderly target group. We will through an explorative study conducted through three focus group interviews show the importance of knowing behavioral factors when designing effective IS and setting up interactive virtual servicescapes. Our conclusions are that it is not just a need, when developing IS and setting up virtual servicescapes on Internet, to know the customers demands, needs and wants. The IS industry also need to create customer trust to the service provider and the services and also been able to set up guiding possibilities to helping the customers finding what they want and to letting the customer to customize the digital service interface. This will together overcome anxiety by the growing young-elderly target group.

Keywords
Information Systems (IS), Digital Services, Marketing, Trust, Digital Guiding, Digital Customization, Resistance, Servicescape, Young-elderly
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Computer and Information Sciences Computer Science, Information Systems; Economy, Marketing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-30625 (URN)
Conference
36th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, IRIS 2013, 11th - 14th August 2013, Oslo, Norge
Available from: 2013-11-21 Created: 2013-11-21 Last updated: 2019-01-02Bibliographically approved
2. Young-elderly and digital use
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Young-elderly and digital use
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sometimes things are taken for granted. If people in general, and elderly people in particular are asked, they might have different views of what they need, demand and are interested in when it comes to services produced with computers and mobile devices, as compared to what the industry offers and assumes that they want, need and value. When Information Systems (IS) are designed it is important that they are developed in accordance with their target group. This explorative study investigates how the group known as young-elderly (60 – 75 years of age) in Sweden perceives services on the Internet and what is required in order to capture their interest. This study indicates that it is vital to build a servicescape in coherence with the customers’ demands, needs and interests as well as to establish credibility in order to gain their trust.

Keywords
Information System (IS), Marketing, Servicescape, Service, Trust, Credibility
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Computer and Information Sciences Computer Science, Information Systems; Economy, Marketing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-30624 (URN)
Conference
IRIS36 - 36th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia: “Digital living”, Oslo, August 11-14, 2013
Available from: 2013-11-21 Created: 2013-11-21 Last updated: 2019-01-02Bibliographically approved
3. Altruistic young elderly in Sweden: a pilot study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Altruistic young elderly in Sweden: a pilot study
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Business and Management Invention (IJBMI), ISSN 2319-801X, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 66-79Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Making it easier for Swedish young elderly (60-75 years) to live a rewarding life after retirement is an increasingly important issue in society. One way to achieve this is to give them a sense of purpose by helping other seniors, and to achieve that requires support systems. When developing an information system (IS) there is a need to know about the thoughts, demands and needs they (both those providing and receiving support) have about wellbeing and about use of IS. When designing IS and its interactive e-servicescape it is essential to identify consumer behavioural factors about wellbeing and the feeling of being needed. To do this, a pilot study with a survey was carried out and workshops conducted with a focus group. The conclusions are that expectancy, motivation, context, reward, and trust are the five key elements. These elements can be seen as a model for feeling needed when providing support to others and they also can provide important input to building an IS with its e-servicescape.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IJBMI, 2018
Keywords
young elderly, motivation, expectation, altruistic, consumer behaviour
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Economy, Business administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-74537 (URN)
Available from: 2018-05-25 Created: 2018-05-25 Last updated: 2019-01-02Bibliographically approved
4. Digital wellness services' servicescape for young elderly
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digital wellness services' servicescape for young elderly
2018 (English)In: 31th Bled eConference Digital Transformation - Meeting the Challanges,Conference Proceedings / [ed] Pucihar, Andreja Kljajic Borstnar, Mirjana Kittl, Christian Ravensteijn, Pascal Clarke, Roger Bons, Roger, Bled, Slovenia: University of Maribor Press , 2018, p. 159-170Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Digital devices reshape the servicescape of wellness, helping people, e.g. young elderly, to benefit from digital wellness services (henceforth DWSs) provided in a digital servicescape. This paper builds on five prior studies and explores: (i) what requirements young elderly have, in order to benefit from DWSs, and (ii) what service providers should consider, and pay regard to, when they develop and offer DWSs to young elderly. Hence, this paper argues for DWSs to be subsets of a digital servicescape. This research developed a model for how different parties, e.g. young elderly, their friends and relatives, developers, providers, but also the society per se, could gain from the DWSs. The DWSs create opportunities for a win-win-win situation. Important for the young elderly are motivation, trust, and credibility. Important for developers and providers are to motivate the users, to create trustworthiness, to provide user guidance, and to develop through co-creation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bled, Slovenia: University of Maribor Press, 2018
Keywords
Young elderly, digital servicescape, digital wellness services (DWSs), trust, usability, guidance, motivation
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Economy, Business Informatics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79337 (URN)10.18690/978-961-286-170-4 (DOI)978-961-286-170-4 (ISBN)
Conference
31th Bled eConference Digital Transformation: Meeting the Challanges, June 17-20, 2018, Bled, Slovenia
Available from: 2019-01-02 Created: 2019-01-02 Last updated: 2019-05-15Bibliographically approved
5. E-servicescape is Plausible
Open this publication in new window or tab >>E-servicescape is Plausible
2014 (English)In: IRIS Selected Papers of the Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia: Issue nr 5 (2014) / [ed] Jacob Nørbjerg, Jan Pries-Heje, Harald Holone, IRIS Association , 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Customers have over the years been used to buying products and services in shops or by ordering over the phone. By the end of the last century shopping over the Internet was added as a new important channel for commerce. As a result, it has become more and more important for organizations to attract customers and their site on the Internet; the interface, is one part of this. In the discourse of marketing there is a field named servicescape and a related field named e-servicescape. For the providers of information systems the different views of service, servicescape and e-servicescape can be confusing. Hence it has to be considered   interesting if the intention is to build not only reliable and trustable systems but also information systems that are in accordance with what the e-servicescape user needs and demands. The question raised in this paper is whether there is a need for further research on the relation and connection between the terms servicescape and e-servicescape. To determine if e-servicescape is fully possible, plausible or not possible in comparison with servicescape the Conceptual model of servicescape by Harris and Ezeh (2008, p. 393) is used. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IRIS Association, 2014
Series
IRIS Selected Papers of the Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, ISSN 2387-3353 ; 2014-5
Keywords
Servicescape, e-servicescape, e-commerce
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Economy, Business administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-46447 (URN)
Available from: 2015-09-23 Created: 2015-09-23 Last updated: 2019-01-02Bibliographically approved

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