lnu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Energy availability and the female athlete triad in elite endurance athletes
Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8249-1311
Lund University, Sweden.
Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
Show others and affiliations
2015 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 610-622Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The female athlete triad (Triad), links low energy availability (EA), with menstrual dysfunction (MD), and impaired bone health. The aims of this study were to examine associations between EA/MD and energy metabolism and the prevalence of Triad-associated conditions in endurance athletes. Forty women [26.2 +/- 5.5 years, body mass index (BMI) 20.6 +/- 2.0 kg/m(2), body fat 20.0 +/- 3.0%], exercising 11.4 +/- 4.5 h/week, were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocol included gynecological examination; assessment of bone health; indirect respiratory calorimetry; diet and exercise measured 7 days to assess EA; eating disorder (ED) examination; blood analysis. Subjects with low/reduced EA (< 45 kcal/kg FFM/day), had lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) compared with those with optimal EA [28.4 +/- 2.0 kcal/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day vs 30.5 +/- 2.2 kcal/kg FFM/day, P < 0.01], as did subjects with MD compared with eumenorrheic subjects (28.6 +/- 2.4 kcal/kg FFM/day vs 30.2 +/- 1.8 kcal/kg FFM/day, P < 0.05). 63% had low/reduced EA, 25% ED, 60% MD, 45% impaired bone health, and 23% had all three Triad conditions. 53% had low RMR, 25% hypercholesterolemia, and 38% hypoglycemia. Conclusively, athletes with low/reduced EA and/or MD had lowered RMR. Triad-associated conditions were common in this group of athletes, despite a normal BMI range. The high prevalence of ED, MD, and impaired bone health emphasizes the importance of prevention, early detection, and treatment of energy deficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2015. Vol. 25, no 5, p. 610-622
Keywords [en]
Energy metabolism, eating disorders, osteoporosis, amenorrhea, hypercholesterolemia
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences, Sport Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81807DOI: 10.1111/sms.12261ISI: 000364595600018PubMedID: 24888644OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-81807DiVA, id: diva2:1303745
Available from: 2019-04-10 Created: 2019-04-10 Last updated: 2019-04-10Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text in DiVA

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Authority records BETA

Melin, Anna K.

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Melin, Anna K.
In the same journal
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports
Sport and Fitness Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn
Total: 2 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf