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Non-host class II ribonucleotide reductase in Thermus viruses: sequence adaptation and host interaction
Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. (Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst EEMiS)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6887-6661
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Stockholm University, Sweden. (Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst EEMiS)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8779-6464
2019 (English)In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 7, p. 1-17, article id e6700Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ribonucleotide reductases (RNR) are essential enzymes for all known life forms. Their current taxonomic distribution suggests extensive horizontal gene transfer e.g., by processes involving viruses. To improve our understanding of the underlying processes, we characterized a monomeric class II RNR (NrdJm) enzyme from a Thermus virus, a subclass not present in any sequenced Thermus spp. genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a distant origin of the nrdJm gene with the most closely related sequences found in mesophiles or moderate thermophiles from the Firmicutes phylum. GC-content, codon usage and the ratio of coding to non-coding substitutions (dN/dS) suggest extensive adaptation of the gene in the virus in terms of nucleotide composition and amino acid sequence. The NrdJm enzyme is a monomeric B-12-dependent RNR with nucleoside triphosphate specificity. It exhibits a temperature optimum at 60-70 degrees C, which is in the range of the growth optimum of Thermus spp. Experiments in combination with the Thermus thermophilus thioredoxin system show that the enzyme is able to retrieve electrons from the host NADPH pool via host thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductases. This is different from other characterized viral RNRs such as T4 phage RNR, where a viral thioredoxin is present. We hence show that the monomeric class II RNR, present in Thermus viruses, was likely transferred from an organism phylogenetically distant from the one they were isolated from, and adapted to the new host in genetic signature and amino acids sequence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PeerJ Incorporation , 2019. Vol. 7, p. 1-17, article id e6700
Keywords [en]
Ribonucleotide reductase, Horizontal gene transfer, Bacteriophage-derived enzymes, Thioredoxin, Transduction, Host-adaptation
National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Biomedical Sciences, Virology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82037DOI: 10.7717/peerj.6700ISI: 000463695300002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-82037DiVA, id: diva2:1306433
Available from: 2019-04-23 Created: 2019-04-23 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved

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Holmfeldt, KarinLundin, Daniel

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