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Development of a Healthy and Satiating Snack
University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
2008 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Development of a Healthy and Satiating Snack (English)
Abstract [en]

ABSTRACT

The demand of healthier products is increasing, and more people are more interested of what they eat. Statistics show that the consumption of snacks is rising.

Hyperglycemia leads to an increased risk for complications in type II diabetes mellitus. Increased levels of postprandial plasma glucose may also lead to equal or maybe more harmful effects than fasting hyperglycemia. When the levels of postprandial plasma glucose are decreased, the development of cardiovascular complications is delayed, why it is important to lower the snacks consumption especially snacks that brings hunger quickly after they are eaten. Because of these factors, healthier products were developed in this study. The aim was to develop a wafer chocolate product that gives higher satiating effect and healthier blood glucose levels compared to one of Cloetta’s chocolate products. Two raw materials were used, a new carbohydrate and a new fat. The new carbohydrate is a healthier sugar alternative than sucrose, since it leads to lower and prolonged increase in blood glucose and insulin levels. The new fat is based on natural oil that is believed to be healthy, mainly due to its satiating effect. The effects of these two materials on blood glucose response and satiety were examined in two products. Furthermore, the products were made of fat reduced milk chocolate in which sucrose in the chocolate mass was 100 % replaced with the new carbohydrate, dietary fibre and fruit concentrate. Only one of the products contained the new fat. The products, together with Cloetta’s chocolate product were consumed by 17 healthy subjects. Blood glucose response and satiating effect after product intake were examined during a period of 3 days.

When blood glucose response was analyzed, a slight indication that the products were relatively healthier than placebo, due to placebo’s unhealthy fluctuations, was found. No clear differences regarding blood sugar maxima were found. Placebo showed, as expected, the highest blood glucose maxima and the largest incremental area under curve, but the maxima of the new fat-lacking product was less than half as high as that of the new fatcontaining product and the area was smaller too, which was not expected. The results regarding the hunger levels were not as expected either since the new fat-lacking product was most satiating while the new fatcontaining product was the least satiating. Despite that, 57 % of the subjects reported they would by such products in the future.

Several biases may have played a role in the results, for example whether or not subjects followed the criteria (e.g. lunch time, exercise), stress, worry, individual energy requirement and how serious and focused the subjects were. However, for further research, increasing the new fat content to 3 g, a bigger sized product, different filling, more subjects and more repeats of same measurements is recommended.

 

 

Abstract [sv]

 

SVENSK SAMMANFATTNING

Efterfrågan på hälsosammare produkter ökar, och fler människor blir mer intresserade av vad de äter. Statistik visar att konsumtionen av mellanmål ökar.

Hyperglykemi leder till en ökad risk för komplikationer i typ II-diabetiker. Ökade nivåer av postprandiell plasmaglukos kan leda till lika eller mer skadliga effekter än fastande hyperglykemi. När nivåerna av postprandiell plasmaglukos är lägre reduceras utvecklingen av kardiovaskulära komplikationer, därför är det viktigt att minska småätandet, speciellt av mellanmål som leder till hunger snart efter att de har ätits. På grund av dessa faktorer har hälsosammare produkter utvecklats i denna studie. Syftet var att utveckla en kexchokladprodukt som har högre mättnadseffekt samt hälsosammare blodsockernivåer jämfört med en av Cloettas chokladprodukter. Två produkter som alternativ till Cloettas chokladprodukter utvecklades. I dessa användes en ny kolhydrat och ett nytt fett. Den nya kolhydraten är ett hälsosammare sockeralternativ än sukros, då den leder till en lägre och förlängd ökning av blodglukos- och insulinnivåer. Det nya fettet är baserat på en naturlig olja som är hälsosam på grund av dess mättande effekt. Effekten av dessa två ämnen undersöktes. Vidare så gjordes de två produkterna av fettreducerad mjölkchoklad i vilken sukros i chokladmassan var 100 % ersatt med den nya kolhydraten, kostfiber samt fruktkoncentrat. endast en av produkterna innehöll det nya fettet. Produkterna, tillsammans med Cloettas chokladprodukt (placebo) konsumerades av 17 friska personer. Blodsockerresponsen och den mättande effekten efter produktintaget undersöktes under 3 timmars period per dag i totalt 3 dagar.

När blodglukosrespons analyserades hittades en svag indikation på att produkterna var relativt hälsosammare än placebo, på grund av de ohälsosamma fluktuationerna. Inga klara skillnader med avseende på blodsockermaxima hittades. Placebo visade, som väntat, det högsta blodglukosmaximum och den största arean under kurvan, men maximum för produkten utan det nya fettet var mindre än hälften så högt som det för produkten med det nya fettet och även arean under kurvan var mindre, vilket inte var förväntat. De upplevda hungernivåerna var inte heller som förväntat då produkten som saknar det nya fettet mättade flest personer medan produkten innehållande nya fettet mättade minst antal personer. Trots det så kunde 57 % av deltagarna tänka sig köpa sådana produkter i framtiden.

Flera faktorer kan ha påverkat resultatet, till exempel huruvida försökspersonerna följde kriterierna (t.ex. lunchtid, träning), stress, oro, individuella energibehov samt hur allvarliga och fokuserade personerna var när de angav hungernivåerna. För vidare studier rekommenderas ett högre innehåll av det nya fettet (3 g), en större produkt, annorlunda fruktbaserad fyllning och fler deltagare och flera upprepningar av samma mätningar.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. , p. 54
Series
Dissertation series / University of Kalmar, Faculty of Natural Science, ISSN 1650-2779
Keywords
Healthy, satiating, snack, diabetes, atherosclerosis, LDL, HDL
National Category
Other Basic Medicine Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hik:diva-960Archive number: 2008:L14OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hik-960DiVA, id: diva2:132672
Presentation
2008-09-04, kalmar, 15:00 (Swedish)
Uppsok
fysik/kemi/matematik
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2009-01-20 Created: 2008-12-26 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved

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