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Road traffic metals: sources and emissions
University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences. (Miljökemi, Environmental chemistry)
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

As the environmental regulations and technical progress have forced the factories’ old “end of pipe” solutions to improve, the metal emissions from point sources have decreased. Instead, the diffuse consumption emissions from goods in use now are in focus. The increased awareness of traffic as a major diffuse metal emission source emphasizes the need for more detailed information on the various traffic related sources. The main scope of this thesis is to study specific parts of metal emissions from some road traffic related sub sources such as brake lining and tyres. The metals in focus are antimony (Sb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), nickel(Ni) and zinc (Zn), and the research quantifies emissions from the different sub sources, trace changes over time as well as dispersal patterns and metal mobility in the roadside environment.

The results show that even if the road traffic associated metal stocks are small compared to total in use stocks, their emissions are of major importance. The updated figures show that despite material developments during the last 10 years, tyres still are one of the main sources of Zn and Cd, while it can be excluded as a source of concern for the other metals studied. Brake linings are shown to be an especially pronounced source for Cu and Sb. The Pb and Cd emissions from brake linings and tyres have decreased as a result of decreasing material concentrations in these sources, most likely a result of EU regulations. Further the results reveals galvanized goods to be a major road traffic related source for Zn. The results show that the total metal concentrations in roadside soils have increased 3-16 times compared to regional background during the last decades. Each metal has a limited dispersal distance from the roads as well as down in the soil profile. Most metals are found within 10 m from the road in the uppermost 10 cm of the topsoil. However, the sequential extractions show that a large part of the metals found in the soil are rather easily mobilized and can be redistributed if the roadside soils become disturbed. Metals emitted due to decelerating activities are not correlated to elevated concentrations near road junctions. Instead the metals appear to be more evenly spread along the whole driven distance.

The study points out Sb as an element that might be problematic to analyse. For Sb, which is sparsely studied as a roadside contaminant, there is a need of more general knowledge as it has a high accumulation rate in roadside soils.

Abstract [sv]

I takt med ökade regleringar inom miljöområdet och en snabb teknikutveckling har fabrikerna allt mer spelat ut sin roll som emissionskällor till miljön. Istället har den diffusa emissionen som kommer från produktanvändning fått en större betydelse. En ökad medvetenhet om transporter och trafikens betydelse för samhällets konsumtionsemissioner understryker det ökade kunskapsbehovet för de trafikrelaterade emissionskällorna. Avhandlingens huvudsyfte är att studera specifika delar av metallemissionen från vissa trafikrelaterade källor så som bromsbelägg och däck. Metallerna som är i fokus är antimon (Sb), bly (Pb), kadmium (Cd), koppar (Cu), krom (Cr), nickel (Ni) och zink (Zn) och forskningen strävar efter att kvantifiera emissionerna från de olika källorna, spåra förändringar i emissioner över tid, kartlägga utsläppsmönster och metallrörlighet i vägnära jord.

Resultaten pekar på att även om de trafikrelaterade källorna kvantitativt är små i jämförelse med de totala källorna så är deras emissioner av stor betydelse. De nya siffrorna visar att trots en materialutveckling inom området under det senaste årtiondet så är fortfarande däck en av de största källorna för Cd och Zn i stadsmiljö, medan de kan avfärdas som källa för de övriga studerade metallerna. Studien visar att bromsbelägg fortfarande är en viktig källa för Cu och Sb. Bly- och Cd-emissionerna från däck och bromsbelägg har däremot minskat drastiskt under samma period. Denna minskning beror troligen på en reglering på EU-nivå. Dessutom visar resultaten att galvaniserade ytor är den viktigaste källan till Zn i stadsmiljö.

Metallkoncentrationerna i vägnära jord har ökat med 3 – 16 ggr jämfört med bakgrundshalterna i de undersökta områdena. Metallerna uppvisar endast en begränsad spridning från vägen och ner i jordprofilen. Den största metallpåverkan återfinns inom 10 m från vägen och i de översta 10 cm av jorden. Trots den begränsade spridningen så uppvisar de flesta metallerna en förhållandevis hög rörlighet, vilket innebär att de kan bli mobila vid störning av jorden. De bromsrelaterade metallerna uppvisar ingen korrelation till förhöjda halter nära korsningar utan är mer jämnt spridda över hela körsträckan.

Studien pekar ut Sb som ett element som kan vara problematiskt att analysera på grund av dess flyktighet. Trots att Sb för närvarande har en snabb ackumulationstakt i trafikmiljö så är den endast sparsamt studerad. Mer generell kunskap om Sb är därför önskvärd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kalmar, 2008. , p. 33
Series
Dissertation series / University of Kalmar, Faculty of Natural Science, ISSN 1650-2779 ; 54
Keywords
Emission patterns, Heavy metals, Roadside soil, Sweden, Traffic, Sequential extractions, SFA
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hik:diva-666ISBN: 978-91-85993-07-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hik-666DiVA, id: diva2:15019
Public defence
2008-05-16, A137, Landgången 4, Kalmar, 09:30 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-09-29 Created: 2008-09-19 Last updated: 2010-03-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. New metal emission pattens in road traffic environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New metal emission pattens in road traffic environment
2006 (English)In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, no 117, p. 85-98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
Emission pattens, Heavy metals, Roadside soil, Sweden, Traffic
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hik:diva-784 (URN)10.1007/s10661-006-7702-2 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-09-29 Created: 2008-09-29 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
2. Metal emissions from brake linings and tires: case studies of Stockholm, Sweden 1995/1998 and 2005
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metal emissions from brake linings and tires: case studies of Stockholm, Sweden 1995/1998 and 2005
2007 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 15, p. 5224-5230Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hik:diva-786 (URN)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-29 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
3. Transversal immission patterns and leachability of heavy metals in road side soils
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transversal immission patterns and leachability of heavy metals in road side soils
2008 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 739-746Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Today there is consensus concerning the road traffic's role as a metal source. However, there are so far only a few studies which focus on the road side immission patterns regarding distance from roads, and especially in combination with the leachability of heavy metals down the soil profile. In this study, the aim was to analyse concentrations of traffic related metals in road side soils, at different depths and distances from roads, both to analyse the immission patterns as well as to explain the importance of the road construction design of the road side terrain. The BCR sequential extraction procedure was performed to be able to address the environmental risk in terms of metal mobility. Approximately 80 soil samples were analysed for seven metals; antimony (Sb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). The results showed that, depending on metal, the total metal concentrations in road side soils have increased 3–16 times compared to regional background during the last decades. Each metal had a limited dispersal distance from the roads as well as down in the soil profile and the road construction significantly affected the metal immission distance. Elevated metal concentrations were mostly found for top soils and down to 10 cm in the soil profiles. The labile fractions counted for more than 40% of the total concentrations for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, indicating a potential mobilization of the metals if the road side soils become disturbed. The present soil metal concentration levels are not alarming, but metals with a high accumulation rate might gradually be an upcoming problem if nothing is done to their emission sources.

Keywords
Immission, Heavy metals, Road traffic, Sequential extractions
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hik:diva-795 (URN)10.1039/B804634D (DOI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
4. Response to comment on " Metal Emissions from brake linings and tires: case studies of Stockholm, Sweden 1995/1998 and 2005"
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Response to comment on " Metal Emissions from brake linings and tires: case studies of Stockholm, Sweden 1995/1998 and 2005"
2008 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 2710-Article in journal, Letter (Other academic) Published
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hik:diva-794 (URN)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
5. Analysis of volatile elements in environmental relevant samples: wet-digestion-derived problems with specific to antimony
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of volatile elements in environmental relevant samples: wet-digestion-derived problems with specific to antimony
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keywords
Antimony, Digestion methods, Volatile element, Environmentally relevant samples
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hik:diva-796 (URN)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2016-02-26Bibliographically approved
6. Substance flow analysis of antimony: a case study in Stockholm, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Substance flow analysis of antimony: a case study in Stockholm, Sweden
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hik:diva-797 (URN)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved

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