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Prospects for the Development of a One-Stop-Shop Business Model for Energy-Efficiency Renovations of Detached Houses in Sweden
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7143-8198
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Sustainable development
SDG 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all, SDG 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all, SDG 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation, SDG 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable, SDG 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts by regulating emissions and promoting developments in renewable energy
Abstract [en]

The building sector is the biggest energy user in the European Union (EU) and therefore, has an important role to play in meeting the energy and climate goals ofEU. In Sweden, more than 80% of the two million detached houses are more than 35 years of age. Energy efficiency renovation of those old houses can reduce primaryenergy use by 65% to 90%. However, the current low rate of energy renovations (yearly about 1% of the building stock) in the EU in general must at least be doubledto meet the energy and climate goals. The low rate of renovations is attributed, among others, to the fragmented market where various actors offer their service in piecemeal approach and homeownersundergo a complex decision-making process. The introduction of innovative collaborative business models can simplify that complex process and eventuallyaccelerate the rate of energy efficiency renovations. One-stop-shop (OSS) business model is one such model where a single actor coordinates other actors in therenovation value chain to offer comprehensive renovation packages. This model has started to emerge in some parts of the EU, but the knowledge about it remainslimited in the Swedish context.

To examine the prospects for the development of an OSS in the Swedish context, this research investigated the demand (homeowners) and supply-side (professionals)of house renovations, as well as, the general market conditions to develop strategies to promote energy renovation. Online questionnaire survey of homeowners wasconducted covering Kronoberg county (year 2017, 971 answers) and whole Sweden (year 2018, 12194 answers). Interviews were conducted with 21 owners/managersof micro-and small-sized construction enterprises, which are dominant in the house renovation market. Furthermore, 16 interviews were conducted with the ProjectManagers of 4 medium-sized construction enterprises, 4 Loan Officers from four large Swedish banks, and 8 brokers from real-estate agencies. In addition, interviewshave been conducted with the energy advisors of the eight municipalities of Kronoberg County. An analysis based on transaction cost economics and resourcebased theory was conducted to identify the conditions under which the OSS conceptcould emerge in the Swedish market. Market gap analysis, systematic literature review, and consultation with 11 Swedish and international experts in the energyefficiency renovation market, formed the basis for proposing strategies to supportrenovations.

The findings demonstrate that the house's age and the age of the homeowner, as well as, annual household income and environmental and energy awareness of thehomeowner, are the factors influencing renovation decisions and homeowners'  propensity to undertake energy-efficiency renovations. Findings also demonstratethat there are several homeowners capable to constitute a segment of potential early adopters for one-stop-shop. Regarding supply-side actors, the findings demonstratethat, in theory, one-stop-shop is viewed positively, but still supply-side actors are hesitant to adopt the concept, mainly due to the lack of resources and managementcompetence, as well as, the perceived risks associated with a change of their business model. Nevertheless, this research identified two supply-side actor profiles, whounder certain conditions, could be the coordinators of a one-stop-shop. Strategies are also proposed, to make market conditions conducive for energy-efficiencyrenovations in detached houses.

In conclusion, the overall prospects for the development of one-stop-shop for energy-efficiency renovations of detached houses in Sweden can be characterized asmoderately positive. This thesis provides insights on the key issues to be addressed, for one-stop-shop to achieve an acceptable market success and provide a sustainablebusiness to the professionals wishing to become active in the renovation market under this concept.

Abstract [sv]

Den största energianvändaren i Europeiska unionen (EU) är byggnadssektorn, vilken därför har en viktig roll att spela när det gäller att uppfylla energi- och klimatmålen i EU. I Sverige är mer än 80 % av två miljoner småhus äldre än 35 år. Energieffektivitetsrenovering av gamla hus kan minska användningen av primärenergi med 65 % till 90 %. Den nuvarande låga energirenoveringen (årsvis ca 1 % av byggnadsbeståndet) i EU i allmänhet måste dock åtminstone fördubblas för att uppfylla energi- och klimatmålen.

Den låga renoveringstakten tillskrivs bland annat en uppdelad marknad där flera olika aktörer erbjuder sina tjänster i en bitvis sätt. För husägare kan detta bli en komplicerad beslutsprocess. Införandet av innovativa samarbetsinriktade affärsmodeller kan förenkla den komplicerade processen och så småningom påskynda graden av energieffektiva renoveringar. One-Stop-Shop (OSS) affärsmodell är en sådan modell där en enda aktör samordnar samtliga aktörer i värdekedjan för renoveringar genom att erbjuda ett omfattande renoveringspaket.Denna modell har börjat växa fram i vissa delar av EU, men kunskapen om den är fortfarande begränsad i ett svenskt sammanhang.

Denna forskning undersöker möjligheterna för ett utvecklande av OSS. Forskningen har gått ut på att undersöka efterfrågan hos husägare samt även utbudet hos olika aktörer inom husrenovering, tillsammans med allmänna marknadsvillkor för att utveckla strategier för att främja energirenovering. En omfattande enkätundersökning av husägare har genomförts på nätet.Undersökningen omfattande Kronobergs län år 2017 (971 svar) och hela Sverige år 2018 (12 194 svar). Semi-strukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med 21 mikro- och småstora företag, som är dominerande på renoveringsmarknaden, samt med fyra medelstora byggföretag. Utöver det har representanter från fyra svenska storbanker intervjuats, samt åtta mäklare från olika fastighetsbyråer. Intervjuer har även genomförts med energirådgivare från de åtta kommunerna i Kronobergs län. En analys som bygger på transaktionskostnadsekonomi och resursbaserad teorigenomfördes för att identifiera under vilka förhållanden OSS-konceptet skulle kunna växa fram på den svenska marknaden. En analys av marknadsbrister, systematisk litteraturöversikt och elva expertsamråd har legat till grund att utveckla strategier som stöder energirenoveringar. 

Resultaten visar att husets ålder och husägarens ålder, hushållens årliga inkomst och miljö- och energimedvetenhet av husägare är faktorer som påverkar renoveringsbeslut och husägares benägenhet att genomföra energirenoveringar. Resultaten visar också att det finns flera husägare som kan utgöra ett segment av potentiella tidiga användare för one-stop-shop. När det gäller aktörerna på utbudssidan visar resultaten att i teorin en one-stop-shop ses positivt, men fortfarande är aktörerna på utbudssidan tveksamma att anta konceptet, främst pågrund av brist på resurser och ledningskompetens, samt de upplevda riskerna förknippade med en förändring av deras affärsmodell. Ändå identifierade denna  forskning två aktörsprofiler på utbudssidan, som under vissa förhållanden kunde vara samordnare för en one-stop-shop. Strategier föreslås också för att göra marknadsförhållandena gynnsamma för energieffektivitetsrenoveringar i småhus. Trots detta har forskningen identifierat två aktörsprofiler, som under vissa förutsättningar skulle kunna anta one-stop-shop modellen. Flera olika strategier för småhus har föreslagits för att göra marknadsmässiga villkor som främjar energirenoveringar.

Sammanfattningsvis kan de övergripande utsikterna för utveckling av one-stopshop för energirenovering av småhus i Sverige karakteriseras som måttligt positiva. Denna avhandling ger insikter om de nyckelfrågor som ska behandlas, för one-stopshop för att uppnå en acceptabel marknads succés och ge en hållbar verksamhet till de yrkesverksamma som vill bli aktiva på renoveringsmarknaden enligt detta koncept.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2021. , p. 247
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 411/2021
Keywords [en]
Detached houses, Energy-efficiency renovations, Homeowners, Onestop-shop, Policy instruments, Renovation decisions, Supply-side actors, Transaction costs
Keywords [sv]
Småhus, Energirenoveringar, Husägare, One-stop-shop, Policyinstrument, Renoveringsbeslut, Aktörer på utbudssidan, Transaktionskostnader
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Construction Management
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering; Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Sustainable Built Environment
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-101919ISBN: 9789189283572 (print)ISBN: 9789189283589 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-101919DiVA, id: diva2:1541714
Public defence
2021-04-23, N1017, Växjö, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020The Kamprad Family FoundationAvailable from: 2021-04-06 Created: 2021-04-01 Last updated: 2024-03-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Physical vs. Aesthetic Renovations: Learning from Swedish House Owners
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical vs. Aesthetic Renovations: Learning from Swedish House Owners
2019 (English)In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we identify the socio-economic attributes and attitudes that have influencedhouse owners in renovating their homes in the past. Our study is based on responses to an onlinequestionnaire survey of 971 house owners living in Kronoberg County in Sweden. Results showedthat the interest and willingness of the house owners to perform a renovation varied dependingon their demographic background and the age of the house. The latter positively affected pastrenovations, only when combined with the residence time. Furthermore, the age of house ownersstrongly and positively affected the probability of performing aesthetic type of renovations, becauseof a long time of residence in the house. Younger, town living, and highly educated house ownersseem to be more concerned regarding saving energy, which motivated them to perform physicalrenovations on their house. Our results also suggest that income, level of education, and place ofresidence have an effect on renovation decisions only through their effect on the energy concern ofhouse owners, and a varied effect on renovation decisions, when combined with the time of residencein the house.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
house owners, renovations, physical renovations, aesthetic renovations, decision-making
National Category
Energy Systems Environmental Management
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Sustainable Built Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79411 (URN)10.3390/buildings9010012 (DOI)000457159600017 ()2-s2.0-85059532629 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Kamprad Family Foundation
Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
2. Swedish House Owners’ Intentions Towards Renovations: Is there a Market for One-Stop-Shop?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish House Owners’ Intentions Towards Renovations: Is there a Market for One-Stop-Shop?
2019 (English)In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 1-16, article id 164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we examine factors aecting owners’ intention for renovation of their detached houses. Furthermore, we analyze their interest in choosing a one-stop-shop (OSS) service for the renovation, even though such a concept is not yet established in Sweden, but emerging in other parts of Europe. Our study is based on responses to an online questionnaire survey of 971 house owners residing in Kronoberg Region in Sweden. About 76% of the respondents intend to renovate in the near future, with approximately 71% of them preferring to renovate individual components of their dwelling and 5% to renovate their whole house in steps. House owners of younger age, higher income, higher education, and those with an interest for environmental issues, were the ones most interested in physical renovations, which improves energy efficiency of the building. For those house owners, one-stop-shop can facilitate the decision-making process, and help them to choose those measures that will improve their quality of life. Approximately 20% of the respondents had a positive view towards an one-stop-shop, which is an indicator that market for such a service exists. Parameters such as quality of work, cost and energy savings and specification of measures to be adopted are the key for the promotion of one-stop-shop. Additionally, house owners want to have a certain level of involvement in the selection of actors performing the renovation. Moreover, financial incentives, e.g., loans, do not play a significant role for the selection of one-stop-shop, but act as complementary motive for house owners.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
house owners, detached house, renovation, retrofit, energy efficiency, one-stop-shop
National Category
Other Civil Engineering Other Environmental Engineering Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Sustainable Built Environment; Technology (byts ev till Engineering)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-86255 (URN)10.3390/buildings9070164 (DOI)000478645000009 ()2-s2.0-85070101538 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Smarthousing Småland
Funder
The Kamprad Family Foundation, 68110021
Available from: 2019-07-09 Created: 2019-07-09 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
3. Future Energy-Related House Renovations in Sweden: One-Stop-Shop as a Shortcut to the Decision-Making Journey
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Future Energy-Related House Renovations in Sweden: One-Stop-Shop as a Shortcut to the Decision-Making Journey
2021 (English)In: Emerging Research in Sustainable Energy and Buildings for a Low-Carbon Future / [ed] Robert J.; Howlett John R.; Littlewood, Lakhmi C. Jain, Singapore: Springer, 2021, 1, p. 37-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Based on an online survey, this paper analyzes the attitude of detached house owners in Sweden toward future renovations and their perception over a one-stop-shop (OSS) service for deep renovation of these dwellings. With the aid of a house owners’ renovation decision-making journey for renovation, personal and contextual variables have been analyzed to identify those house owners having renovation plans in the near future, what they are going to renovate, and which needs to lead them to that decision. Furthermore, we examine if there is an interest in OSS concept and the factors affecting positively or negatively the choice for such a concept. Results suggest that deep renovation is not yet prioritized. The priority for house owners is to change specific components of their dwelling and follow a step-wise approach. Aesthetic renovations are high on the agenda, with some structural and energy-related renovations following them. House owners between 29 and 49 years of age are those mostly interested in more comprehensive renovations. The OSS concept appears to be interesting to a number of house owners capable to verify a business potential. House owners up to the age of 45 years, with dwellings built from 1960 and above and with environmental awareness, are the market segment that can act as early adopters of the OSS concept. When it comes to the decision-making journey for renovations, house owners’ future plans, and the factors affecting their choice for an OSS provider, we can claim that OSS can act as a guide for house owners from the early stages of their decision-making journey and provide them with a shortcut that will make this journey more secure, while triggering renovation decision of greater extent. In terms of financing, incentives related to energy performance are also suggested as means that could boost greater interest for more comprehensive renovations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: Springer, 2021 Edition: 1
Series
Advances in Sustainability Science and Technology, ISSN 2662-6829, E-ISSN 2662-6837 ; 3
Keywords
future renovations, energy-related renovations, one-stop-shop, house owners, renovation journey
National Category
Building Technologies Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Sustainable Built Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-101032 (URN)10.1007/978-981-15-8775-7_4 (DOI)978-981-15-8775-7 (ISBN)
Projects
Integrated solutions for ambitious energy refurbishment of private housing (INNOVATE)
Funder
The Kamprad Family FoundationEU, Horizon 2020
Available from: 2021-02-08 Created: 2021-02-08 Last updated: 2022-02-22Bibliographically approved
4. Swedish construction MSEs: simply renovators or renovation service innovators?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish construction MSEs: simply renovators or renovation service innovators?
2020 (English)In: Building Research & Information, ISSN 0961-3218, E-ISSN 1466-4321, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 67-83Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To address the renovation needs of detached house stock in Sweden, micro and small-sized enterprises (MSEs), a subgroup of small and medium-sized enterprises, are expected to introduce more comprehensive house renovation solutions. One-stop-shop (OSS) is an innovative Product-Service System model that can enable MSEs to offer comprehensive renovation packages instead of existing fragmented solutions. We have applied a conceptual framework for innovation adoption in organizations and conducted an interview of 21 construction MSEs in three different geographical areas in Sweden to examine their perceptions and preparedness to adopt the OSS business concept. Findings showed that the examined MSEs are positive towards OSS as it could address the needs for the comprehensive renovation of detached houses. However, presently, are not prepared to take the coordinator’s role in such a concept mainly due to the perceived business risks, the lack of flexibility to organizational restructuring, and lack of resources and management competency to coordinate multiple tasks and actors. Those organizations lacked awareness of existing policy support and access to funding mechanisms to try new business models. As a solution, they proposed an external coordinator to be the provider of OSS, on the trial phase, whose role and characteristics need to be further examined.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2020
Keywords
Innovation adoption, Construction MSEs, One-stop-shop, Organizational innovation, Business model
National Category
Construction Management Other Environmental Engineering Business Administration
Research subject
Economy, Ledarskap, entreprenörskap och organisation; Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Sustainable Built Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89083 (URN)10.1080/09613218.2019.1662713 (DOI)000485554000001 ()2-s2.0-85074193730 (Scopus ID)
Projects
One-Stop-Shop model for Energy Renovation of single family houses in SwedenINNOVATE-Integrated solutions for energy refurbishment of housing- EU Horizon 2020 Project
Funder
The Kamprad Family Foundation, 68110021
Available from: 2019-09-12 Created: 2019-09-12 Last updated: 2021-04-07Bibliographically approved
5. Strategies for deep renovation market of detached houses
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategies for deep renovation market of detached houses
2021 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 138, p. 1-10, article id 110659Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Deep renovation of the buildings is a key for sustainable development, however, the rate of deep renovation of residential buildings in the European Union (EU) is lower than what is required to meet the climate and energy goals. This paper analyses peculiarities and commonalities in market conditions and approaches to the deep renovation of single-family (or detached) houses in Denmark and Sweden. The market analysis covers the Political, Economic, Social, and Technical (PEST) dimensions and is based on systematic literature review and findings of market gap analysis. The PEST analysis is complemented with responses from 49 stakeholders/experts to examine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis) for the deep renovation market. The synthesis of SWOT and PEST led to some strategies for deep renovation. Furthermore, policies and strategies adopted by some other countries have been discussed to place findings from this study in the regional and global context. Capacity building in designing and managing deep renovation with technological advancement and construction practices; and enforcement of quality assurance systems of artisans could avoid the perceived risk, and inconveniences associated with renovation. Encouraging systematically planned stepwise deep renovation through One-Stop shop and linking such renovation with appropriate financing mechanism could attract more homeowners with financial limitations. Besides, clustering several houses in need of renovation and appropriate energy/carbon pricing mechanisms could make the renovation market more attractive for investors and construction companies. The findings of this paper are of interest to construction companies, policymakers, investors, and analysts about the deep renovation market.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-99593 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2020.110659 (DOI)000612227800001 ()2-s2.0-85099182072 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2019-00219EU, Horizon 2020, 38-2-15-19EU, Horizon 2020, 754112
Available from: 2020-12-16 Created: 2020-12-16 Last updated: 2023-01-27Bibliographically approved

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