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Exposure to contaminated sediments during recreational activities at a public bathing place
University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9382-9296
2009 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 171, no 1-3, p. 200-207Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

More and more time is spent on recreational activities, but few risk assessments focus specifically on these situations and exposure factor data are often scarce. To assess exposure to contaminants at a public bathing place in an urban environment, we have compiled literature data, conducted observation studies, and analyzed water and sediment samples. The levels of anthropogenic contaminants are high in urban environments and traffic frequently plays an important role. In this study, to characterize variability and uncertainty, the deterministic exposure calculations for metal pollutants were supplemented by a probability bounds analysis for the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The results from these calculations show that oral intake is the major exposure route for metals, while skin absorption, with present assumptions, is more important for the PAH. The presently measured levels of contaminants, at this public bathing place, cannot be anticipated to cause any significant adverse influence on public health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier , 2009. Vol. 171, no 1-3, p. 200-207
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hik:diva-2237DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.05.128OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hik-2237DiVA, id: diva2:237874
Available from: 2009-09-26 Created: 2009-09-26 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Uncertainty, variability and environmental risk analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uncertainty, variability and environmental risk analysis
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The negative effects of hazardous substances and possible measures that can be taken are evaluated in the environmental risk analysis process, consisting of risk assessment, risk communication and risk management. Uncertainty due to lack of knowledge and natural variability are always present in this process. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate some tools as well as discuss the management of uncertainty and variability, as it is necessary to treat them both in a reliable and transparent way to gain regulatory acceptance in decision making.

The catalytic effects of various metals on the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds during the heating of fly ash were investigated (paper I). Copper showed a positive catalytic effect, while cobalt, chromium and vanadium showed a catalytic effect for degradation. Knowledge of the catalytic effects may facilitate the choice and design of combustion processes to decrease emissions, but it also provides valuable information to identify and characterize the hazard.

Exposure factors of importance in risk assessment (physiological parameters, time use factors and food consumption) were collected and evaluated (paper II). Interindividual variability was characterized by mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis and multiple percentiles, while uncertainty in these parameters was estimated with confidence intervals.

How these statistical parameters can be applied was shown in two exposure assessments (papers III and IV). Probability bounds analysis was used as a probabilistic approach, which enables separate propagation of uncertainty and variability even in cases where the availability of data is limited. In paper III it was determined that the exposure cannot be expected to cause any negative health effects for recreational users of a public bathing place. Paper IV concluded that the uncertainty interval in the estimated exposure increased when accounting for possible changes in climate-sensitive model variables. Risk managers often need to rely on precaution and an increased uncertainty may therefore have implications for risk management decisions.

Paper V focuses on risk management and a questionnaire was sent to employees at all Swedish County Administrative Boards working with contaminated land. It was concluded that the gender, age and work experience of the employees, as well as the funding source of the risk assessment, all have an impact on the reviewing of risk assessments. Gender was the most significant factor, and it also affected the perception of knowledge.

Abstract [sv]

Negativa effekter orsakade av skadliga ämnen och möjliga åtgärder bedöms och utvärderas i en miljöriskanalys, som kan delas i riskbedömning, riskkommunikation och riskhantering. Osäkerhet som beror på kunskapsbrist samt naturlig variabilitet finns alltid närvarande i denna process. Syftet med avhandlingen är att utvärdera några tillvägagångssätt samt diskutera hur osäkerhet och variabilitet hanteras då det är nödvändigt att båda hanteras trovärdigt och transparent för att riskbedömningen ska vara användbar för beslutsfattande.

Metallers katalytiska effekt på bildning av klorerade aromatiska ämnen under upphettning av flygaska undersöktes (artikel I). Koppar visade en positiv katalytisk effekt medan kobolt, krom och vanadin istället katalyserade nedbrytningen. Kunskap om katalytisk potential för bildning av skadliga ämnen är viktigt vid val och design av förbränningsprocesser för att minska utsläppen, men det är också ett exempel på hur en fara kan identifieras och karaktäriseras.

Information om exponeringsfaktorer som är viktiga i riskbedömning (fysiologiska parametrar, tidsanvändning och livsmedelskonsumtion) samlades in och analyserades (artikel II). Interindividuell variabilitet karaktäriserades av medel, standardavvikelse, skevhet, kurtosis (toppighet) och multipla percentiler medan osäkerhet i dessa parametrar skattades med konfidensintervall.

Hur dessa statistiska parametrar kan tillämpas i exponeringsbedömningar visas i artikel III och IV. Probability bounds analysis användes som probabilistisk metod, vilket gör det möjligt att separera osäkerhet och variabilitet i bedömningen även när tillgången på data är begränsad. Exponeringsbedömningen i artikel III visade att vid nu rådande föroreningshalter i sediment i en badsjö så medför inte bad någon hälsofara. I artikel IV visades att osäkerhetsintervallet i den skattade exponeringen ökar när hänsyn tas till förändringar i klimatkänsliga modellvariabler. Riskhanterare måste ta hänsyn till försiktighetsprincipen och en ökad osäkerhet kan därmed få konsekvenser för riskhanteringsbesluten.

Artikel V fokuserar på riskhantering och en enkät skickades till alla anställda som arbetar med förorenad mark på länsstyrelserna i Sverige. Det konstaterades att anställdas kön, ålder och erfarenhet har en inverkan på granskningsprocessen av riskbedömningar. Kön var den mest signifikanta variabeln, vilken också påverkade perceptionen av kunskap. Skillnader i de anställdas svar kunde också ses beroende på om riskbedömningen finansierades av statliga bidrag eller av en ansvarig verksamhetsutövare.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö, Kalmar: Linnaeus University Press, 2011
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 35/2011
Keywords
Contaminated land, exposure assessment, exposure factors, risk analysis, risk perception, uncertainty, variability, probabilistic risk assessment
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-11193 (URN)978-91-86491-63-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-03-18, A137, Landgången 4, Kalmar, 09:30 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-03-23 Created: 2011-03-23 Last updated: 2011-03-24Bibliographically approved

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Filipsson, MonikaHenningsson, MariannePeltola, PasiÖberg, Tomas

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