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Method for High-Temperature Particle Sampling in Tar-Rich Gases from the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. (Bioenergiteknik)
2010 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 24, no 3, 2042-2051 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The thermochemical conversion of biomass produces compounds in both gas and particle phases that may be regarded as contaminants. These contaminants include both particulate matter (e.g., fly ash, soot, and fragmented nonvolatilized material) and volatilized metals and tars that condense and form particulate matter during cooling. In this study a method for high-temperature particle sampling in tar-rich gases from the thermochemical conversion of biomass was developed and tested. Both a bed of granular activated carbon and a denuder were used for tar adsorption. First, the transport efficiency of particles was determined both theoretically and experimentally using a K2SO4 reference aerosol, and the losses were found to be smaller in the denuder than in the bed of granular activated carbon. The adsorption capacity was then tested using a model aerosol of K2SO4 and diethyl-hexyl-sebacate (DEL-IS). The adsorption capacity of the bed of granular activated carbon was found to be higher than that of the denuder. The adsorption capacity was also tested using a model aerosol of K2SO4 particles and tar-rich gas from a laboratory-scale gasifier. As for DEHS, the result indicated that the capacity of the bed of granular activated carbon was higher than that of the denuder; it was also found that the adsorption was incomplete when the tar concentrations increased. In addition, the bed of granular activated carbon was successfully tested during experiments using a 100 kW circulating fluidized bed gasifier. The results indicate that the tar adsorption capacity is dependent not only on the total tar concentration but also on the tar composition

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society , 2010. Vol. 24, no 3, 2042-2051 p.
Keyword [en]
FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION; AEROSOL-PARTICLES; ASH FORMATION; HOT GAS; GASIFICATION; ADSORPTION; THERMODENUDER; GASIFIER
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-6918DOI: 10.1021/ef9012196OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-6918DiVA: diva2:332046
Projects
CHRISGAS
Available from: 2010-07-31 Created: 2010-07-31 Last updated: 2013-04-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Characterization of particulate matter from atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifiers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of particulate matter from atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifiers
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Through biomass gasification, biomass can be converted at high temperature to a product gas rich in carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and methane. After cleaning and upgrading, the product gas can be converted to biofuels such as hydrogen; methanol; dimethyl ether; and synthetic diesel, gasoline, and natural gas. Particulate matter (PM) is formed as a contaminant in the gasification process, and the aim of this work was to develop and apply a method for sampling and characterization of PM in the hot product gas.

 

A particle measurement system consisting of a dilution probe combined in series with a bed of granular activated carbon for tar adsorption was developed, with the aim of extracting a sample of the hot product gas without changing the size distribution and composition of the PM. The mass size distribution and concentration, as well as the morphology and elementary composition, of PM in the size range 10 nm to 10 µm in the product gas from a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) gasifier, a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier and an indirect BFB gasifier using various types of biomass as fuel were determined.

 

All gasifiers and fuels displayed a bimodal particle mass size distribution with a fine mode in the <0.5 µm size range and a coarse mode in the >0.5 µm size range. Compared with the mass concentration of the coarse mode the mass concentration of the fine mode was low from all gasifiers. The evaluation of the results for the fine-mode PM was complicated by condensing potassium chloride for the CFB gasifier when using miscanthus as fuel and by condensing tars for the indirect BFB gasifier when using wood C as fuel. The mass concentration of the coarse-mode PM was higher from the CFB gasifier than from the two BFB gasifiers. The coarse-mode PM from the BFB gasifier when using wood A as fuel was dominated by char. In the CFB gasifier the coarse-mode PM was mainly ash and bed material when using all fuels. The coarse-mode PM from the indirect BFB gasifier when using wood C as fuel was mainly ash.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö, Kalmar: Linnaeus University Press, 2011
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations, 50/2011
Keyword
biomass gasification, fluidized bed, particulate matter, particle morphology, particle elementary composition
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-11473 (URN)978-91-86491-80-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-05-27, Wicksell, Linnéuniversitetet, 351 95 Växjö, Växjö, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-04-27 Created: 2011-04-27 Last updated: 2011-05-02Bibliographically approved

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