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Enhancing Emerging Learning Objects with Contextual Metadata Using the Linked Data Approach
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics. (CeLeKT)
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics. (CeLeKT)
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics. (CeLeKT)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6937-345X
2010 (English)In: 2010 6th IEEE International Conference on Wireless, Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies in Education (WMUTE), IEEE Press, 2010, 50-56 p.Conference paper, (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The latest developments in mobile technologies have increased the possibility for users to generate digital content at any location and time. In this paper we present our current research efforts related to the ability to enhance digital content that emerge when mobile devices are used to support different learning activities. We believe that these emerging learning objects should be enriched with contextual characteristics in a machine interoperable and interpretable manner in order to preserve the meaning, or semantics, of those features.  There are a number of approaches to address this problem but in the present article we focus on exploring the potential added value of using Linked Data to depict emerging learning objects with contextual metadata. Our preliminary findings indicate that Linked Data offers a flexible approach for supporting important aspects of digital content related to data linkage, data merge and semantic interoperability. The latest developments in mobile technologies have increased the possibility for users to generate digital content at any location and time. In this paper we present our current research efforts related to the ability to enhance digital content that emerge when mobile devices are used to support different learning activities. We believe that these emerging learning objects should be enriched with contextual characteristics in a machine interoperable and interpretable manner in order to preserve the meaning, or semantics, of those features.  There are a number of approaches to address this problem but in the present article we focus on exploring the potential added value of using Linked Data to depict emerging learning objects with contextual metadata. Our preliminary findings indicate that Linked Data offers a flexible approach for supporting important aspects of digital content related to data linkage, data merge and semantic interoperability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2010. 50-56 p.
Keyword [en]
Digital content metadata, Linked Data, Semantic Web, Emerging Learning Objects
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer and Information Sciences Computer Science, Media Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-7101DOI: 10.1109/WMUTE.2010.42ISBN: 978-0-7695-3992-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-7101DiVA: diva2:342775
Conference
2010 6th IEEE International Conference on Wireless, Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies in Education (WMUTE),12-16 April 2010, Kaohsiung
Available from: 2010-08-11 Created: 2010-08-11 Last updated: 2015-05-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Promoting Semantic Interoperability of Contextual Metadata for Learner Generated Digital Content
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Promoting Semantic Interoperability of Contextual Metadata for Learner Generated Digital Content
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Technological advancements in computing have led to a reality where computational devices are more mobile, connected and context aware than ever before. Several of these devices are primarily designed for or support the creation of digital content via built-in or attachable sensors, e.g. mobile phones. The portability and connectivity of mobile devices make them suitable tools to support learning experiences; their features can be used to generate digital content and metadata related to the particular learning situation. These types of objects, referred to as Emerging Learning Objects (ELOs), introduce challenges in terms of metadata enrichment as their metadata should reflect aspects related to the particular learning situation in which they were created to be properly indexed. A claim made in this thesis is that semantic interoperability of ELO metadata is an integral concern that needs to be explored in order to benefit from these metadata outside custom tailored applications and systems. Therefore, the main research question explored in this thesis focuses on the ability to enrich ELOs with semantically interoperable contextual metadata.

This thesis is comprised of a collection of five peer-reviewed articles that describe interrelated stages of research in pursuit of an answer to the main research question. The overall research process consisted of three main stages: a literature review; the development a system artefact; and the exploration of the technological solution (Linked Data) applied in the system artefact. An instantiation of the Unified Process guided the development of the system artefact.

The outcomes of these activities provide insights on how to perceive the relationship between context and contextual metadata, as well as properties related to a particular technological solution, namely data distribution, flexibility and expressivity. In order to decouple the findings from a particular instance of technology, a generalization effort in the analysis identified two generic factors that affect the semantic interoperability of metadata: the level of ontological consensus and the level of metadata expressivity. The main conclusion of this thesis is that until the constituent parts of context are agreed upon, metadata expressivity is an important feature for promoting semantic interoperability of ELO contextual metadata.Technological advancements in computing have led to a reality where computational devices are more mobile, connected and context aware than ever before. Several of these devices are primarily designed for or support the creation of digital content via built-in or attachable sensors, e.g. mobile phones. The portability and connectivity of mobile devices make them suitable tools to support learning experiences; their features can be used to generate digital content and metadata related to the particular learning situation. These types of objects, referred to as Emerging Learning Objects (ELOs), introduce challenges in terms of metadata enrichment as their metadata should reflect aspects related to the particular learning situation in which they were created to be properly indexed. A claim made in this thesis is that semantic interoperability of ELO metadata is an integral concern that needs to be explored in order to benefit from these metadata outside custom tailored applications and systems. Therefore, the main research question explored in this thesis focuses on the ability to enrich ELOs with semantically interoperable contextual metadata. This thesis is comprised of a collection of five peer-reviewed articles that describe interrelated stages of research in pursuit of an answer to the main research question. The overall research process consisted of three main stages: a literature review; the development a system artefact; and the exploration of the technological solution (Linked Data) applied in the system artefact. An instantiation of the Unified Process guided the development of the system artefact.The outcomes of these activities provide insights on how to perceive the relationship between context and contextual metadata, as well as properties related to a particular technological solution, namely data distribution, flexibility and expressivity. In order to decouple the findings from a particular instance of technology, a generalization effort in the analysis identified two generic factors that affect the semantic interoperability of metadata: the level of ontological consensus and the level of metadata expressivity. The main conclusion of this thesis is that until the constituent parts of context are agreed upon, metadata expressivity is an important feature for promoting semantic interoperability of ELO contextual metadata.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linnéuniversitetet, 2010
Keyword
metadata, contextual metadata, user-generated content
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer and Information Sciences Computer Science, Media Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-8453 (URN)
Presentation
2010-08-25, D1136, Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-09-16 Created: 2010-09-16 Last updated: 2010-09-16Bibliographically approved

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