lnu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Depressive signs in midlife: A risk factor for cognitive impairment in later life?
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science. (Biologisk Psykologi)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0057-0308
University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio.
University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio.
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki.
Show others and affiliations
2010 (English)In: International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease (ICAD) 2010, Chicago, USA: Alzheimer's Association , 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: Although depression has been associated with dementia, the nature of this relation is still unclear. Establishing causality from previous studies has been complicated by the typical use of a short follow-up and participants aged over 70 already at baseline. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate if depressive signs already in midlife are related to cognitive impairment in later life. Methods: Participants were derived from random, population-based samples previously investigated in 1972, 1977, 1982, or 1987. Their mean age at baseline was 50.4 years (SD 6.0). After an average follow-up of 21 years, 1449 individuals (73%) aged 65 to 79 years were re-examined in 1998. At the re-examination some form of cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 139 of the participants: 82 with mild cognitive impairment and 57 with dementia (48 of these with Alzheimer’s disease). Signs of depression were estimated through responses to three questions concerning the perception of a hopeless future, impossible life goals and loneliness. The relation between depressive signs in midlife and cognitive impairment in later life was analyzed with logistic regression with adjustments for age, gender, apolipoprotein e4 status and a number of midlife health and lifestyle indicators, including blood pressure, cholesterol and marital status. Results: Depressive signs in midlife, as measured in this study, were significantly related to general cognitive impairment in later life, but also separately to both mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. When dichotomized into high versus low levels of depressive signs the odds ratios were 2.19 (1.1 to 4.3) for mild cognitive impairment and 3.81 (1.3 to 11.5) for Alzheimer’s disease. Significant associations were also found between the separate measures of hopelessness and loneliness on the one hand and the separate outcomes of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease on the other. Conclusions: The results support a causal relation between depressive signs relatively early in life and cognitive function in later life. Clinical relevance includes the long-term health implications of depressive signs in midlife also for the risk of dementia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chicago, USA: Alzheimer's Association , 2010.
Keywords [en]
Depression Epidemiology APOE
National Category
Neurology
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-7735OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-7735DiVA, id: diva2:345129
Conference
International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease (ICAD) 2010
Available from: 2010-08-23 Created: 2010-08-23 Last updated: 2014-12-11Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text in DiVA

Authority records BETA

Håkansson, KristerMohammed, Abdul K. H.

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Håkansson, KristerMohammed, Abdul K. H.
By organisation
School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science
Neurology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

urn-nbn

Altmetric score

urn-nbn
Total: 120 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf