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Emissions from a controlled fire in municipal solid waste bales
University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1903-760X
Univ Estado Rio De Janeiro, Dept Environm Engn, BR-20559900 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
Univ Agr Sci, Dept Agr Biosyst & Technol, SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden.
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2004 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 24, no 1, 9-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental and safety aspects of seasonal storage of baled municipal solid waste to be used as fuel for energy production (waste fuel), was investigated and experiments were carried out on burning of bales. The flammability, combustion processes and emissions were studied by simulating, in small-scale, potential effects of a possible fire in full-scale bale storage area. Despite the high water content and the high density of the bales, after setting fire, the bales burned well, even though no risk for self-ignition exists. The following parameters of the combustion product were measured continuously: O2, CO2, CO, SO2, NO, NO2, NOx,THC, smoke gas rate and the temperature of the smoke. Soot particles in the smoke were collected and analysed for Hg, Pb, Cd, As,Ni, Cr, Mn, Cu, Co, Sb and V concentrations. The analysis of the moisture content, concentrations of Hg, Cd, HCl, HF, HBr, NH3, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated and brominated dioxins (PCDD/F and PBrDD/F, respectively) were carried out. It was found that the PCDD/F levels (TEQs) varied according to the system used: 12.53 ng (I-TEF-88)/Nm3; 14.09 ng (I-TEF-99)/Nm3;13.86 ng (Eadons)/Nm3. The PAH concentration was 3.04 mg/Nm3. The contents of the metals in the smoke (with the exceptions of Pb and Cd with mean values of 1.74 and 0.36 mg/m3, respectively) were below the limit values established by the Swedish Ministry ofEnvironment for emissions from incineration plants [Swedish Ministry of Environment, (2002:1060), Förordning 2002:1060 omavfallsförbränning. Available from http://www.notisum.se/rnp/SLS/LAG/20021060.HTM]/EU-directive [(2000/76/EC), Directive 2000/76/EC, of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 December 2000 on the Incineration of Waste. http://www.Scotland.gov.uk/library5/environment/iecda.pdf]. The HCl concentration was 10 times higher than the limit value (mean value of 99 mg/m3).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2004. Vol. 24, no 1, 9-18 p.
National Category
Environmental Management
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental technology; Environmental Science, Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-17278DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2003.08.003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-17278DiVA: diva2:490196
Available from: 2012-02-04 Created: 2012-02-04 Last updated: 2016-11-02Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Solid waste management based on cost-benefit analysis using the WAMED model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solid waste management based on cost-benefit analysis using the WAMED model
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Efficient waste management enables the protection of human health, reducing environmental pollution, saving of natural resources, and achieving sustainable and profitable management of energy. In many countries, the general guidelines for waste management are set by national or local waste management plans. Various models provide local authorities with decision-making tools in planning long-term waste management scenarios.This study aims at providing a special model framework for the evaluation of ecological–economic efficiency (ECO-EE) of waste management. This will serve as an information support tool for decision making by actors of a solid waste management (SWM) scheme, primarily at the municipal and regional levels. The objective of this study is to apply the waste management’s efficient decision (WAMED) model along with the company statistical business tool for environmental recovery indicator (COSTBUSTER) model to SWM and municipal solid waste (MSW) schemes in general in order to evaluate and improve their ECO-EE. COSTBUSTER is a mathematical indicator for the size and extent of implementation costs of a certain SWM scheme, compared with the total size of the average financial budget of a SWM actor of a certain kind. In particular, WAMED is proposed for evaluating the suitability to invest in baling technology. Baling of solid waste is an emerging technology which is extensively used worldwide to temporarily store waste for either incineration or recovery of raw materials. The model for efficient use of resources for optimal production economy (the EUROPE model) is for the first time applied to emissions from baling facilities. It has been analysed how cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and full cost accounting (FCA) can facilitate environmental optimisation of SWM schemes. The effort in this work represents a continuation of such ambitions as an enlargement of the research area of CBA based modelling within SWM. In the thesis, certain theoretical and economic aspects of SWM were analysed as case studies. A shift of viewpoints within the field of waste management is presented. This shift is in accordance with the prevailing concept of sustainable development, as commonly understood. It is concluded that in the practical SWM context, the findings of the study point at the possibilities to modify the common CBA- and FCA-based methods by WAMED, COSTBUSTER, and EUROPE. Therefore, it can be said that estimations in a SWM scheme can be carried out by using certain economic model, if properly modified in a logical and plausible way. New principles for cost allocation to SWM residual products are presented in the current work. They imply strong industrial cost saving incentives through promoting the introduction of new and improved processing technologies for rest-waste. Such incentives then strongly promote investments that are likely to improve both the environment and the corporate profitability. Thereby, the occurrence of non-commercialised, and hence not utilized, wastes is reduced. This improves the short term corporate economy through saving raw materials such as solid waste fuel, spending less time for administrating waste flows, and less wear and tear of the plant machinery. Additional environmental advantages which affect the balance sheets in a favourable way are related to the long-term business economy and extended environmental goodwill. This is due to the recently introduced way of considering solid waste as regular goods in financial terms - the equality principle. If waste is seen as goods, and not wasted in landfills, the environment will improve. This, in turn, leads to an improved quality of life. Based on the current study, it is recommended to apply WAMED to SWM schemes in order to evaluate their ECO–EE to justify decision making and investments. Also, it is recommended to apply COSTBUSTER, based on the current WAMED outcome, to SWM schemes to determine their relative size and extent. It is recommended to apply EUROPE to the emissions in case of accidental burning, treatment of leachate, andabatement with odours at any SWM scheme, based on the induced economic incentives, in order to reduce unwanted substances and phenomena.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö, Kalmar: Linnaeus University Press, 2012
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations, 76/2012
Keyword
Economic models, economic incentives, solid waste management (SWM) schemes, baling economics, municipal solid waste (MSW) management, ecological– economic efficiency (ECO-EE), cost-benefit analysis (CBA), full cost accounting (FCA) analysis, the WAMED model, the COSTBUSTER model, the EUROPE model.
National Category
Environmental Management Business Administration
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental technology; Economy, Business administration; Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-17329 (URN)978-91-86983-30-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-02-24, Fullriggaren, Sjöfartshögskolan, Barlastgatan 11, Kalmar, 09:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2012-02-07 Created: 2012-02-06 Last updated: 2016-11-02Bibliographically approved

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