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Copper, silver, rubidium and caesium ion exchange in soda-lime-silicate float glass by direct deposition and in line melting of salt pastes
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. (Glass group)
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. (Glass group)
Institute of Glass and Ceramics, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg.
2012 (English)In: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3546, Vol. 53, no 1, 1-7 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report the change of surface composition on commercial soda-lime-silica (SLS) float glass which results from single-side exchange of Na+ by Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+, respectively. Ion exchange is achieved by in line melting of a directly deposited salt paste in a prolonged annealing procedure. Concentration profiles obtained and computed effective diffusion coefficients, as well as apparent activation energies for diffusion, are reported. Depending on exchange species, treatment time and treatment temperature, the penetration depths are in the range of 10-20 μm for K+, Cu+, Rb+ and Cs+. A penetration depth of >100 μm can readily be obtained for Ag+.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 53, no 1, 1-7 p.
Keyword [en]
Ion exchange, surface analysis, diffusion, concentration profile, float glass, monovalent cations
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Glass Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-17922OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-17922DiVA: diva2:507953
Available from: 2012-03-07 Created: 2012-03-07 Last updated: 2016-05-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Modification of Float Glass Surfaces by Ion Exchange
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modification of Float Glass Surfaces by Ion Exchange
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Glass is a common material in each person’s life, e.g. drinking vessels, windows, displays, insulation and optical fibres. By modifying the glass surface it is possible to change the performance of the entire glass object, generally known as Surface Engineering. Ion exchange is a convenient technique to modify the glass surface composition and its properties, e.g. optical, mechanical, electrical and chemical properties, without ruining the surface finish of the glass.

 

This thesis reports the findings of two different research tasks; characterisation of the single-side ion exchange process and the novel properties induced. The characterisation of the ion exchange process was mainly performed by utilising a novel analytical equipment: the Surface Ablation Cell (SAC), allowing continuous removal of the flat glass surface by controlled isotropic dissolution. SAC-AAS has provided concentration vs. depth profiles of float glass ion exchanged with K+, Cu+, Rb+ and Cs+. In addition, SEM-EDX has provided concentration vs. depth profiles of Ag+ ion exchanged samples and validation of a copper concentration vs. depth profile. From the concentration vs. depth profiles, the effective diffusion coefficients and activation energies of the ion exchange processes have been calculated. Depending on the treatment time and treatment temperature, penetration depths in the range of 5-10 μm (Rb+, Cs+), 20-30 μm (K+, Cu+) and 80-100 μm (Ag+) can be readily obtained. The effective diffusion coefficients followed the order Ag+>K+>Cu+>Rb+>Cs+. This is in accordance with the ionic radii for the alkali ions (K+<Rb+<Cs+) but reverse for the noble metal ions (Cu+<Ag+).

 

The glass properties modified by single-side ion exchange have mainly been characterised by UV-VIS spectroscopy and flexural strength measurements. Cu+ and Ag+ ion exchange give rise to surface colouration, Cu+ copper-ruby and Ag+ yellow/amber. The surface-ruby colouration was found to depend on the residual tin ions in the tin-side of the float glass. The flexural strength was studied using the coaxial double ring-test method which also was suitable for holed specimens. The flexural strength of K+ ion exchanged float glass samples was found to substantially increase compared to untreated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö, Kalmar: Linnaeus University Press, 2012. 176 p.
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations, 89/2012
Keyword
Ion exchange, float glass, surface modification, surface colour, flexural strength
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Glass Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-18447 (URN)978-91-86983-62-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-06-14, Sal Myrdal, Hus K, Växjö, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-05-09 Created: 2012-04-23 Last updated: 2012-05-09Bibliographically approved

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