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The effect of single-side ion exchange on the flexural strength of plain and holed float glass containing a drilled hole
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology. (Glass Group)
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology. (Glass Group)
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5319-4855
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
2013 (English)In: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3546, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 66-71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of single-side ion exchange (using a KNO3:KCl mixture) on the ring-on-ring flexural strength of float glass has been studied. Two ion exchanged series, treated at 450 and 515°C, were investigated. The ion exchanged samples showed approximately 160 respectively 100% increases in their arithmetic mean strength compared to as-received float glass. Furthermore, a series of samples containing drilled holes were studied in order to investigate the effect of single-side ion exchange on such common construction elements. The samples that contained drilled holes were ion exchanged at 450°C and showed around 140% increase of the fracture load compared to the untreated samples containing drilled holes. As a general observation, the ion exchange treatment induced ~110 MPa compressive stresses (515°C) and ~180 MPa compressive stresses (450°C). The ion exchanged samples showed no significant increase in stiffness. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 54, no 2, p. 66-71
Keywords [en]
Float glass, Ion exchange, Flexural strength, Coaxial double ring-test
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Glass Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-18449ISI: 000318753100002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84881146304OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-18449DiVA, id: diva2:523749
Available from: 2012-04-26 Created: 2012-04-23 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Modification of Float Glass Surfaces by Ion Exchange
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modification of Float Glass Surfaces by Ion Exchange
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Glass is a common material in each person’s life, e.g. drinking vessels, windows, displays, insulation and optical fibres. By modifying the glass surface it is possible to change the performance of the entire glass object, generally known as Surface Engineering. Ion exchange is a convenient technique to modify the glass surface composition and its properties, e.g. optical, mechanical, electrical and chemical properties, without ruining the surface finish of the glass.

 

This thesis reports the findings of two different research tasks; characterisation of the single-side ion exchange process and the novel properties induced. The characterisation of the ion exchange process was mainly performed by utilising a novel analytical equipment: the Surface Ablation Cell (SAC), allowing continuous removal of the flat glass surface by controlled isotropic dissolution. SAC-AAS has provided concentration vs. depth profiles of float glass ion exchanged with K+, Cu+, Rb+ and Cs+. In addition, SEM-EDX has provided concentration vs. depth profiles of Ag+ ion exchanged samples and validation of a copper concentration vs. depth profile. From the concentration vs. depth profiles, the effective diffusion coefficients and activation energies of the ion exchange processes have been calculated. Depending on the treatment time and treatment temperature, penetration depths in the range of 5-10 μm (Rb+, Cs+), 20-30 μm (K+, Cu+) and 80-100 μm (Ag+) can be readily obtained. The effective diffusion coefficients followed the order Ag+>K+>Cu+>Rb+>Cs+. This is in accordance with the ionic radii for the alkali ions (K+<Rb+<Cs+) but reverse for the noble metal ions (Cu+<Ag+).

 

The glass properties modified by single-side ion exchange have mainly been characterised by UV-VIS spectroscopy and flexural strength measurements. Cu+ and Ag+ ion exchange give rise to surface colouration, Cu+ copper-ruby and Ag+ yellow/amber. The surface-ruby colouration was found to depend on the residual tin ions in the tin-side of the float glass. The flexural strength was studied using the coaxial double ring-test method which also was suitable for holed specimens. The flexural strength of K+ ion exchanged float glass samples was found to substantially increase compared to untreated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö, Kalmar: Linnaeus University Press, 2012. p. 176
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 89/2012
Keywords
Ion exchange, float glass, surface modification, surface colour, flexural strength
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Glass Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-18447 (URN)978-91-86983-62-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-06-14, Sal Myrdal, Hus K, Växjö, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-05-09 Created: 2012-04-23 Last updated: 2012-05-09Bibliographically approved

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Scopushttp://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/sgt/gt/2013/00000054/00000002/art00002

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Karlsson, StefanJonson, BoJohansson, MarieEnquist, Bertil

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