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Surface ruby colouring of float glass by sodium-copper ion exchange
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology. (Glass Group)
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology. (Glass Group)
Institute of Glass and Ceramics, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. (Erlangen Glass Group)
Institute of Glass and Ceramics, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. (Erlangen Glass Group)
2013 (English)In: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3546, Vol. 54, no 3, 100-107 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, colouration of the tin side of commercial soda lime silicate float glass by copper ion exchange is described and characterised. Data on the resulting concentration vs. depth profiles, absorbance vs. depth profiles, UV-Vis spectra  and CIE-Lab colour coordinates are reported. Fundamental aspects of the process of colouration are described and discussed. Optimum saturation of colouration is achieved after ion exchange at 520 °C for 10 h, or at 500 °C for 20 h, respectively. The depth of the coloured layer increases with increasing treatment time. At the same time, a linear dependency is found between the value of a and b in the CIE-Lab colour space for variations of treatment time and temperature. The latter indicates broad tunability of colouration between different shades of ruby and varying colour saturation. It is shown that colour arises from a redox reaction between copper species and residual tin ions, and that the depth of the coloured layer is governed by the position of the tin hump. The critical concentration of tin and copper to achieve colour formation was found to be ~0.25 mol% and >1 mol%, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society of Glass Technology , 2013. Vol. 54, no 3, 100-107 p.
Keyword [en]
Float glass, copper ruby, ion exchange, staining, colouring
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Glass Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-18448ISI: 000321155700002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84881145236OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-18448DiVA: diva2:523750
Note

Manuscript included in the PhD-thesis.

Available from: 2012-04-26 Created: 2012-04-23 Last updated: 2017-05-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Modification of Float Glass Surfaces by Ion Exchange
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modification of Float Glass Surfaces by Ion Exchange
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Glass is a common material in each person’s life, e.g. drinking vessels, windows, displays, insulation and optical fibres. By modifying the glass surface it is possible to change the performance of the entire glass object, generally known as Surface Engineering. Ion exchange is a convenient technique to modify the glass surface composition and its properties, e.g. optical, mechanical, electrical and chemical properties, without ruining the surface finish of the glass.

 

This thesis reports the findings of two different research tasks; characterisation of the single-side ion exchange process and the novel properties induced. The characterisation of the ion exchange process was mainly performed by utilising a novel analytical equipment: the Surface Ablation Cell (SAC), allowing continuous removal of the flat glass surface by controlled isotropic dissolution. SAC-AAS has provided concentration vs. depth profiles of float glass ion exchanged with K+, Cu+, Rb+ and Cs+. In addition, SEM-EDX has provided concentration vs. depth profiles of Ag+ ion exchanged samples and validation of a copper concentration vs. depth profile. From the concentration vs. depth profiles, the effective diffusion coefficients and activation energies of the ion exchange processes have been calculated. Depending on the treatment time and treatment temperature, penetration depths in the range of 5-10 μm (Rb+, Cs+), 20-30 μm (K+, Cu+) and 80-100 μm (Ag+) can be readily obtained. The effective diffusion coefficients followed the order Ag+>K+>Cu+>Rb+>Cs+. This is in accordance with the ionic radii for the alkali ions (K+<Rb+<Cs+) but reverse for the noble metal ions (Cu+<Ag+).

 

The glass properties modified by single-side ion exchange have mainly been characterised by UV-VIS spectroscopy and flexural strength measurements. Cu+ and Ag+ ion exchange give rise to surface colouration, Cu+ copper-ruby and Ag+ yellow/amber. The surface-ruby colouration was found to depend on the residual tin ions in the tin-side of the float glass. The flexural strength was studied using the coaxial double ring-test method which also was suitable for holed specimens. The flexural strength of K+ ion exchanged float glass samples was found to substantially increase compared to untreated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö, Kalmar: Linnaeus University Press, 2012. 176 p.
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations, 89/2012
Keyword
Ion exchange, float glass, surface modification, surface colour, flexural strength
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Glass Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-18447 (URN)978-91-86983-62-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-06-14, Sal Myrdal, Hus K, Växjö, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-05-09 Created: 2012-04-23 Last updated: 2012-05-09Bibliographically approved

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