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Wastewater generated by the wooden floor industry: Treatability investigation applying individual and coupled technologies
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During the last half-century a growing concern has taken place in the world regarding water shortage and public health associated to water pollution. Safe discharges of industrial effluents and water reuse within the industry have been encouraged and several initiatives have promoted the development of wastewater treatment technologies with the main focus on industrial sectors that generate large volumes of wastewater. On the other hand, searching for onsite technological options to treat small volumes of highly polluted wastewaters generated by industrial sectors that have no water in their production processes (i.e. wooden floor and furniture industry) has been neglected. To minimize and prevent environmental effects through innovative approaches, onsite treatment options for wastewater generated by cleaning/washing activities in a wooden floor industry in Sweden have been investigated. It was found that different wastewater streams generated after cleaning/washing of machinery and surfaces at different stages of the wooden floor production can pose negative effects to aquatic organisms. Since they are intermittently and manually generated, these wastewater streams have high variability both in volumes and chemical composition. During treatability studies, equalization/sedimentation process was found to be an important pre-treatment step responsible for reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of about 19%. Sorption/filtration with activated carbon and anaerobic biological treatment were found to be technically feasible for both COD and formaldehyde removal. Wood fly ash (waste material with negligible cost) showed moderate sorption efficiency as compared to commercial activated carbon and leaching of secondary pollutants might prevent the use of this material unless pretreatment is carried out. In the anaerobic treatment process, the treatment efficiency of COD in an anaerobic baffled reactor  (ABR) was decreased 50% when the C/N ratio dropped below 3. A successful treatment of the cleaning wastewater with soluble COD removal of about 83% and FA removal higher than 99% was achieved by the ABR operated with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 days. Mole ratio of Mg:N:P and pH were key parameters for ammonium precipitation in the wastewater. At Mg:N:P of 1:1:1 or higher and pH of 8.0, the highest ammonium removal (83%) was achieved. Combinations of treatment processes (e.g. sorption and electrocoagulation or biological treatment and chemical precipitation) improved the quality of the final effluent. However, process optimization is still required in order to improve even more the quality of the final effluent and reduce operation and maintenance costs. From the water reuse/recycle perspective, the application of advanced oxidation in combination with the above-mentioned processes seems to be a promising approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2013.
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations, No 135/2013
Keyword [en]
Wooden floor industry, activated carbon sorption/filtration, anaerobic biological treatment, chemical precipitation, electrocoagulation, ecotoxicity
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science; Environmental Science, Environmental technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-25300ISBN: 978-91-97427-28-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-25300DiVA: diva2:615675
Public defence
2013-05-23, Fullriggaren (B135), Barlastgatan 11, 392 31, Kalmar, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-05-23 Created: 2013-04-11 Last updated: 2014-03-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Wastewater generated during cleaning/washing procedures in a wood-floor industry: toxicity on the microalgae Desmodesmus subspicatus
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wastewater generated during cleaning/washing procedures in a wood-floor industry: toxicity on the microalgae Desmodesmus subspicatus
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2012 (English)In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 33, no 21, 2439-2446 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In industries based on dry processes, such as wood floor and wood furniture manufacture, wastewater is mainly generated after cleaning of surfaces, storage tanks and machinery. Owing to the small volumes, onsite treatment options and potential environmental risks posed to aquatic ecosystems due to discharge of these wastewaters are seldom investigated. In the present study, the effects of cleaning wastewater streams generated at two wood floor production lines on Desmodesmus subspicatus were investigated. The microalgae was exposed to different wastewater concentrations (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25% v:v) and the algae growth evaluation was based on in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence, cell density, cell size (number of cells/colony) and cell ratio (length/width). Inhibitory effects of the tested wastewaters on the microalgae were positively related to concentration and negatively related to exposure time. The EC50,24 h of blade cleaning wastewater (BCW) and floor cleaning wastewater (FCW) were 3.36 and 5.87% (v:v), respectively. No negative effect on cell colony formation was caused by BCW, whereas an increase of 90% unicellular cells was observed in FCW concentrations below 50% (v:v). At the lowest concentration (3.13% v:v) where no growth inhibition was observed, both wastewater streams caused changes in cell dimensions by increasing cell length and width. To conclude, wastewaters generated during cleaning procedures in the wood floor industries can have severe environmental impacts on aquatic organisms, even after high dilution. Therefore, these wastewaters must be treated before being discharged into water bodies.

Keyword
growth inhibition, Desmodesmus subspicatus, colony sizes, induced unicellular cell, wood industry
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-23106 (URN)10.1080/09593330.2012.671853 (DOI)000311120000009 ()2-s2.0-84871073383 (Scopus ID)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Removal of Organic Pollutants from Wastewater Using Wood Fly Ash as a Low-Cost Sorbent
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Removal of Organic Pollutants from Wastewater Using Wood Fly Ash as a Low-Cost Sorbent
2010 (English)In: CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water, ISSN 1863-0650, E-ISSN 1863-0669, Vol. 38, no 11, 1055-1061 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study untreated and treated wood fly ash (WA) was used as a low cost sorbent in batch sorption tests to investigate the removal of organic pollutants from a real wastewater generated by cleaning/washing of machinery in a wood laminate floor industry in Sweden The experiments focused on the effect of the WA dosage and particle size on the removal efficiency for organic compounds With a WA dosage of 160 g L-1 and a particle size less thin 1 mm the reductions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) biologic oxygen demand and total organic carbon were 37 +/- 0 4 24 +/- 0 4 and 30 +/- 0 3% respectively Pre treatment of WA with hot water improved the COD removal efficiency by absorption from 37 +/- 0 4 to 42 +/- 1 6% when the same dosage (160 g L-1) was applied Sorption isotherm and sorption kinetics for COD using untreated WA can be explained by Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic models Intra particle diffusion model indicates that pore diffusion is not the rate limiting step for COD removal Based on the experimental data WA could be used as an alternative low cost sorption media/filter for removal of organic compounds from real industrial wastewater.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-25294 (URN)10.1002/clen.201000105 (DOI)000285165000009 ()2-s2.0-78649550732 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-04-11 Created: 2013-04-11 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Packed-Column of Granular Activated Carbons for Removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand from Industrial Wastewater
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Packed-Column of Granular Activated Carbons for Removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand from Industrial Wastewater
2013 (English)In: CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water, ISSN 1863-0650, E-ISSN 1863-0669, Vol. 41, no 3, 244-250 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal by packed-columns of activated carbon (AC) derived from two different materials (coal activated carbon, CAC and wood activated carbon, WAC) is reported as part of an on-site wastewater treatment system for handling small volumes of wastewater generated at wood-floor industries for which there are no proper on-site treatment options available in the market. The performance of the sorbents, the effect of bed depth (0.19 and 0.57 m) and volumetric load (0.10 and 0.24 m h−1) on the breakthrough curve of sorption systems were studied. The results indicated the feasibility of using both ACs to treat these wastewaters. At the bed depth (0.57 m), volumetric load (0.24 m h−1), and 30% breakthrough, CAC and WAC showed treatment capacity of 40.5 L kg−1 in 250 h and 23.8 L kg−1 in 63 h, respectively. This indicated that CAC requires longer retention times to reach a performance similar to WAC. The experimental data was fit into the bed depth-service time model showing that under the same conditions, CAC had higher maximum sorption capacity (N0) than WAC. Moreover, thermal regeneration at 500°C temperature could be a cost-effective procedure since the reuse of spent AC through such regeneration process for further treatment could still achieve 90% of the initial sorption capacity, reducing then costs for the use of new sorbents and also the need for waste disposal.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-25289 (URN)10.1002/clen.201100388 (DOI)000315853000006 ()2-s2.0-84874730329 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-04-11 Created: 2013-04-11 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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