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Removal of Inorganic Anionic Pollutants from Water using Adsorption Technology
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the era of urbanization, industrialization and population growth, groundwater and drinking water sources are getting adversely polluted due to the addition of different toxic contaminants including inorganic anionic pollutants. The inorganic anions are of serious concern due to their adverse health effects on humans, even when present at very low concentrations in water. Adsorption process is an attractive method for the removal of anions as compared to other water treatment technologies in terms of cost, simplicity of design and operation. In this study, granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) and nano-Al2O3 were tested for the removal of fluoride, perchlorate and nitrate anions from aqueous solutions. Different experimental parameters (viz. pH, agitation time, adsorbate concentration, temperature, competing anions) have been studied to optimize the adsorption process. The maximum adsorption capacity of 7.0 mg g-1 (at pH 6.0-7.0) and 20.0 mg g-1 (at pH 6.0-6.5) for fluoride and perchlorate, respectively was achieved using GFH at 25 oC. Adsorption kinetics of fluoride by GFH was favorably explained with pseudo-first-order, while perchlorate adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second-order model. The Langmuir model explained the adsorption isotherms of fluoride and perchlorate by GFH. The Raman spectroscopy results revealed that perchlorate was adsorbed through electrostatic attraction between perchlorate and positively charged GFH surface sites. The adsorption efficiencies achieved by nano-Al2O3 for nitrate and fluoride were 4.0 mg g-1 (at pH ~4.4) and 14.0 mg g-1 (at pH ~6.15), respectively at 25 oC. Kinetics and isotherms of fluoride and nitrate by nano-Al2O3 were well-explained by pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. The FTIR and EDX results reveal that aluminum-fluoro complexes are formed due to the interaction between fluoride and nano-Al2O3 moieties. In all the cases, the most influencing anions were the ones that compete for similar binding sites on the adsorbent surface. Results from this study will be helpful in demonstrating potential utility of the tested adsorbents for the removal of different anions from water and provide an insight into the adsorbent-adsorbate (anions) interactions in the aqueous media.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2013.
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations, 142/2013
Keyword [en]
Water treatment, adsorption, inorganic anionic pollutants, granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), nano-alumina, adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics, modeling.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science; Environmental Science, Environmental technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-27657ISBN: 978-91-87427-39-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-27657DiVA: diva2:638121
Public defence
2013-08-29, N2007, Smålandsgatan 26E, Kalmar, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-07-31 Created: 2013-07-25 Last updated: 2013-07-31Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Defluoridation from aqueous solutions by granular ferric hydroxide (GFH)
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2009 (English)In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, no 2, 490-498 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This research was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions, Batch experiments were performed to study the influence of various experimental parameters such as contact time (1 min-24 h), initial fluoride concentration (1-100 mg L(-1)), temperature (10 and 2S degrees C), pH (3-12) and the presence of competing anions on the adsorption of fluoride on GFH. Kinetic data revealed that the uptake rate of fluoride was rapid in the beginning and 95% adsorption was completed within 10 min and equilibrium was achieved within 60 min. The sorption process was well explained with pseudo-first-order and pore diffusion models. The maximum adsorption capacity of GFH for fluoride removal was 7.0 mg g(-1). The adsorption was found to be an endothermic process and data conform to Langmuir model. The optimum fluoride removal was observed between pH ranges of 4-8. The fluoride adsorption was decreased in the presence of phosphate followed by carbonate and sulphate. Results from this study demonstrated potential utility of GFH that could be developed into a viable technology for fluoride removal from drinking water.

National Category
Engineering and Technology Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-27671 (URN)10.1016/j.watres.2008.10.031 (DOI)000263595500026 ()
Available from: 2013-07-26 Created: 2013-07-26 Last updated: 2014-03-27Bibliographically approved
2. Perchlorate removal from aqueous solutions by granular ferric hydroxide (GFH)
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2010 (English)In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, Vol. 159, no 1-3, 84-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present research evaluates the efficacy of granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) for perchlorate removal from aqueous solutions. Laboratory scale experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial perchlorate concentration, temperature, pH and competing anions on perchlorate removal by GFH. Results demonstrated that perchlorate uptake rate was rapid and maximum adsorption was completed within first 30 min and equilibrium was achieved within 60 min. Pseudo-second-order model favorably explains the sorption mechanism of perchlorate on to GFH. The maximum sorption capacity of GFH for perchlorate was ca. 20.0 mg g(-1) at pH 6.0-6.5 at room temperature (25 degrees C). The optimum perchlorate removal was observed between pH range of 3-7. The Raman spectroscopy results revealed that perchlorate was adsorbed on GFH through electrostatic attraction between perchlorate and positively charged surface sites. Results from this study demonstrated potential utility of GFH that could be developed into a viable technology for perchlorate removal from water.

National Category
Engineering and Technology Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-27672 (URN)10.1016/j.cej.2010.02.043 (DOI)000277544800012 ()
Available from: 2013-07-26 Created: 2013-07-26 Last updated: 2014-03-27Bibliographically approved
3. Nitrate removal from water by nano-alumina: Characterization and sorption studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nitrate removal from water by nano-alumina: Characterization and sorption studies
2010 (English)In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, Vol. 163, no 3, 317-323 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of nano-alumina for nitrate removal from aqueous solutions. The nature and morphology of sorbent was characterized by XRD, FTIR, BET and SEM analysis. Batch adsorption studies were performed as a function of contact time, initial nitrate concentration, temperature, pH and influence of other interfering anions. Nitrate sorption kinetics was well fitted by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum sorption capacity of nano-alumina for nitrate removal was found to be ca. 4.0 mg g(-1) at 25 +/- 2 degrees C. Maximum nitrate removal occurred at equilibrium pH ca. 4.4. The nitrate sorption has been well explained using Langmuir isotherm model. Results from this study demonstrated the potential utility of nano-alumina for nitrate removal from water.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2010
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-21070 (URN)10.1016/j.cej.2010.08.008 (DOI)000283449400019 ()
Available from: 2012-08-09 Created: 2012-08-09 Last updated: 2014-05-12Bibliographically approved
4. Defluoridation from aqueous solutions by nano-alumina: Characterization and sorption studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defluoridation from aqueous solutions by nano-alumina: Characterization and sorption studies
2011 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 186, no 2-3, 1042-1049 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of nano-alumina (Al(2)O(3)) for fluoride adsorption from aqueous solutions. The nature and morphology of pure and fluoride-sorbed nano-alumina were characterized by SEM with EDX, XRD, and FTIR analysis. Batch adsorption studies were performed as a function of contact time, initial fluoride concentration, temperature, pH and influence of competing anions. Fluoride sorption kinetics was well fitted by pseudo-second-order model. The maximum sorption capacity of nano-alumina for fluoride removal was found to be 14.0 mg g(-1) at 25 degrees C. Maximum fluoride removal occurred at pH 6.15. The fluoride sorption has been well explained using Langmuir isotherm model. Fluoride sorption was mainly influenced by the presence of PO(4)(3-), SO(4)(2-) and CO(3)(2-) ions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2011
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-21040 (URN)10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.11.102 (DOI)000288344000010 ()
Available from: 2012-08-07 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2014-05-08Bibliographically approved
5. Fluoride removal from water by adsorption: A review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fluoride removal from water by adsorption: A review
2011 (English)In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, Vol. 171, no 3, 811-840 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fluoride contamination in drinking water due to natural and anthropogenic activities has been recognized as one of the major problems worldwide imposing a serious threat to human health. Among several treatment technologies applied for fluoride removal, adsorption process has been explored widely and offers satisfactory results especially with mineral-based and/or surface modified adsorbents. In this review, an extensive list of various adsorbents from literature has been compiled and their adsorption capacities under various conditions (pH, initial fluoride concentration, temperature, contact time, adsorbent surface charge, etc.) for fluoride removal as available in the literature are presented along with highlighting and discussing the key advancement on the preparation of novel adsorbents tested so far for fluoride removal. It is evident from the literature survey that various adsorbents have shown good potential for the removal of fluoride. However, still there is a need to find out the practical utility of such developed adsorbents on a commercial scale, leading to the improvement of pollution control.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2011
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-21006 (URN)10.1016/j.cej.2011.05.028 (DOI)000293664600012 ()
Conference
Symposium on Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture, Tufts University's European Center in Talloires, France, July 11–13, 2010
Available from: 2012-08-06 Created: 2012-08-06 Last updated: 2014-05-09Bibliographically approved

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