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Organizing preliminary storage sites of organic material, waste fuels and recyclables and their separating distance from populated areas
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0021-5971
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1903-760X
2014 (English)In: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 16, no 2, 270-281 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

European Union directives have urged member countries to enhance the recycling and separation of waste fractions, and this has increased the number of temporary storage sites of recyclables and waste fuels. Spontaneous fires at temporary storage sites have become common and pose social/health/environmental risks. Storage sites should be sited sufficiently far from populated regions, so that the concentration of released pollutants from open fires falls below the critical air quality index before the plume reach the downwind population. In this study, the open-burn/ open-detonation model developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency was employed, and 540 simulations were performed for nine scenarios of open burning of household waste to estimate suitable sizes of storage heaps and adequate distances between storage sites and populated regions. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis was performed for 1,080 additional simulations to determine the effects of variations in the burn rate, storage dimension and volume of the waste heap on the model output. The resulting chart can be directly employed by waste operators/ environmental agencies to organize storage sites to minimize externalities due to open fires. Furthermore, using ArcGIS software, first-cut information of the total Swedish population facing the risk of hazards due to spontaneous fires was provided.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 16, no 2, 270-281 p.
Keyword [en]
Temporary storage, Risk of fires, Externalities of open fires, Organic materials, Solid waste fuels
National Category
Environmental Management Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental technology; Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-28663DOI: 10.1007/s10163-013-0184-zISI: 000334183800009Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84897579667OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-28663DiVA: diva2:645484
Available from: 2013-09-04 Created: 2013-09-04 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Risk of spontaneous fires at temporary storages sites for organic material, waste fuels and recyclables: Quantification and mitigation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk of spontaneous fires at temporary storages sites for organic material, waste fuels and recyclables: Quantification and mitigation
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Economic and environmental constraints have created increasing demand for (material and energy recovery) and recycling of waste generated from households, commercial and industrial activities. A wide variety of materials waiting for sorting, recovery, recycling and disposal are stored at temporary storage sites (TSS) where physical, biotic and abiotic processes can lead the stored material to spontaneous ignition. Spontaneous fires at TSS are associated with severe social health economic and environmental implications.

The objective of the present thesis was to access, quantify and mitigate the risk of spontaneous fires at temporary storage sites. It was found that during the period from 2000 to 2010, spontaneous fires have caused losses of about 49 million SEK (about 5 million Euros) to the Swedish waste and recycling industry. A comparison of two groups of waste operators (non-seasonal storage sites at private companies and seasonal storage sites at municipality owned companies) showed that the number of fire incidents per storage site was higher for the former one.

Furthermore, it was found that there is a need to improve the behavior of environmental managers related to safety issues as a group of managers was found to be under the influence of optimism, attribution and availability biases. The managers under the influence of optimism bias preferred to follow low cost risk averting strategies and fire incidents were more frequently reported at their storage sites.

The ArcGIS spatial analysis using Boolean and Weighted Linear Combination approach and open burn/open detonation model was used to provide the screening level guidelines for siting new storage sites with a due consideration given to potential off-site consequences of spontaneous fires on downwind population. Furthermore, experiments were conducted to investigate the combustion characteristics of MSW bales. The data suggested that the unwrapped bales might pose higher hazards for adjacently stored material to catch fire than bales wrapped with low density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic sheets. For future, interdisciplinary research with focus on technical solutions (e.g. development of performance based design using fire simulations and methods for early detection and extinction of fires) and economic, political and organizational solutions that ensure risk of spontaneous fires not to be trivialized is recommended.

Keywords: temporary storage, risk of fires, spontaneous ignition, biofuels, recyclables, waste fuels

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2014. 82 p.
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations, 160/2014
Keyword
temporary storage, risk of fires, spontaneous ignition, biofuels, recyclables, waste fuels
National Category
Environmental Management
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-31583 (URN)978-91-87427-71-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-02-28, Fullriggaren (B-135), Landgången 3, Kalmar, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-02-25 Created: 2014-01-22 Last updated: 2014-05-09Bibliographically approved

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Ibrahim, Muhammad AsimHogland, William

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