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The role of tree composition in Holocene fire history of the hemiboreal and southern boreal zones of southern Sweden, as revealed by the application of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm: Implications for biodiversity and climate-change issues
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. (Palaeoecology)
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. (Palaeoecology)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2025-410X
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. (Palaeoecology)
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Tallinn University.
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2013 (English)In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 23, no 12, 1747-1763 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a quantitative reconstruction of local forest history at two sites, Stavsåkra (hemiboreal zone) and Storasjö (southern boreal zone), in southern Sweden (province of Småland) to evaluate possible causes of contrasting Holocene fire histories in mid- and late Holocene. The Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) is applied to evaluate between-site differences in the relative abundance of deciduous trees and Pinus (pine) and landscape/woodland openness during the Holocene. The LRA estimates of local vegetation abundance are compared with other proxies of local vegetation, that is, plant and beetle remains. The LRA results suggest that Pinus was a major tree taxon in the woodlands of Storasjö during mid- and late Holocene, while Tilia(linden) and Betula (birch) were dominant at Stavsåkra. The contrasting fire histories are shown to be strongly related to between-site differences in tree composition during mid-Holocene, 4000–2000 BC in particular. The archaeological/historical and beetle data indicate contrasting land uses from c. 1000BC (late Bronze Age/early Iron Age), grazing in open Calluna heaths at Stavsåkra and woodland grazing at Storasjö. Between-site differences in fire historyduring late Holocene were likely due to different land-use practices. Between-site differences in tree composition in mid-Holocene are best explainedby local climatic and geological/geomorphological differences between the hemiboreal and southern boreal zones of Småland, which might also be the primary cause of between-site differences in land-use histories during late Holocene. Maintenance of biodiversity at the landscape scale in the studyarea requires that existing old pine woodlands and Calluna heath are managed with fire and cattle grazing. Further climate warming might lead to higherprobabilities of climate-induces fire, in particular in pine-dominated woodlands.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 23, no 12, 1747-1763 p.
Keyword [en]
biodiversity, climate change, fire, forest history, Holocene, Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Research subject
Environmental Science, Paleoecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-30144DOI: 10.1177/0959683613505339ISI: 000327472500009Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84888609120OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-30144DiVA: diva2:662125
Available from: 2013-11-06 Created: 2013-11-06 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Fire history in the hemiboreal and southern boreal zones of southern Sweden during 11000 years: Relationships with past vegetation composition and human activities and implications for biodiversity issues
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fire history in the hemiboreal and southern boreal zones of southern Sweden during 11000 years: Relationships with past vegetation composition and human activities and implications for biodiversity issues
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis studies fire history over the last 11 000 years (Holocene) in central Småland, southern Sweden, on the basis of palaeoecological analyses of peat sequences from three small bogs (Notteryd, Stavsåkra and Storasjö). The main objective is to gain insights into the long-term relationships between fire, climate, human-impact, other environmental factors and the history of biodiversity in the study region. The following hypotheses are tested: 1) there are no between-site differences in i) Holocene fire history, ii) abundance of deciduous trees versus pine and forest openness over the Holocene, and iii) landscape history over the last three centuries, and 2) there are no within-site differences in the Holocene charcoal records.

Hypothesis 1 (i-iii) is tested using all charcoal records (three sites) and pollen-based Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) estimates of past percentage cover of plant taxa and land-use/vegetation units over the last three centuries (test of the LRA using historical maps), and the entire Holocene. Hypothesis 2 is tested using two parallel charcoal records from the same core at Notteryd. The charcoal data comprise continuous records of macroscopic charcoal (macro-C), microscopic charcoal records from pollen slides, and identification of charcoal fragments to plant taxa. Chronologies are based on series of 14C dates from terrestrial plant remains and age-depth models achieved using Bayesian statistics.

Accumulation rates (AR) of the area of macro-C was found to be better to use than AR of the number of macro-C for interpretation of the results. Within-site differences in charcoal records exist and have to be considered. Besides climate, forest tree-composition (related to geomorphological settings) was shown to play a primordial role in Early and Mid-Holocene fire history, while land-use was a major factor in the Late Holocene. Three different histories of forest development and land-use changes within the same region are revealed, implying a multitude of landscape types over time and space. These long-term landscape histories were at the origin of the high biodiversity still existing in the 18th century. Major landscape transformations due to agrarian reforms since the 18th century resulted in a dramatic loss of landscape and species biodiversity over the last two centuries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2013
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations, 155/2013
Keyword
Fire history, land-use history, biodiversity, charcoal analysis, Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA), Holocene, Småland, Sweden
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Research subject
Environmental Science, Paleoecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-30154 (URN)978-91-87427-62-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-12-05, B135, Fullriggaren, Barlastgatan 11, Kalmar, Kalmar, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-11-10 Created: 2013-11-06 Last updated: 2013-11-10Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full textScopushttp://hol.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/10/22/0959683613505339

Authority records BETA

Cui, Qiao-YuGaillard, Marie-JoséLemdahl, GeoffreySugita, ShinyaGreisman, Annica

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