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Acute Toxic Effects Caused by Leachate from Five Different Tree Species on Artemia Salina and Vibro Fischeri
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. (ESEG)
Kristianstad Univ, Sch Educ & Environm, SE-29188 Kristianstad, Sweden.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1903-760X
Univ Estado Rio De Janeiro, UERJ, Dept Sanit & Environm Engineerin, BR-20551013 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7920-8001
2012 (English)In: Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, ISSN 1556-6560, E-ISSN 1556-6579, Vol. 6, no 2, 214-220 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract: In this study, leachates resulting from leaching tests carried out with sawdust from five tree species were investigated. The studied species were: Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), European larch (Larix decidua), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica). The analyses included chemical parameters such as pH, TOC and phenolic compounds (reported as total poly-phenols) and acute toxicity on two different organisms, the crustacean Artemia sauna and the bacteria Vibro fischeri (Microtox (R)). There are very high amounts of different phenolic compounds in the leachate, and large differences between tree species. The leachates produced by sawdust and bark of different tree species presented great variation regarding acute toxicity. V fischeri was more sensitive than A. sauna and leachates from pine sawdust and pine bark produced the highest toxicity response from V fischeri. This study indicates that bark is one component of the tree anatomy that needs to be handled as a potential hazardous material to the aquatic environment. The large variation in toxicity presented by different tree species need to be taken into account when assessing the impacts to surrounding watercourses and constructing wastewater treatment facilities for the wood-based industry such as irrigation water, stormwater runoff from storage areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Scientific Publishers, 2012. Vol. 6, no 2, 214-220 p.
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental technology; Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-30611DOI: 10.1166/jbmb.2012.1202ISI: 000308255300012Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84865044928OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-30611DiVA: diva2:665574
Available from: 2013-11-20 Created: 2013-11-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Characterization, toxicity and treatment of wood leachate generated outdoors by the wood-based industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization, toxicity and treatment of wood leachate generated outdoors by the wood-based industry
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Karakterisering av toxicitet och behandling av lakvatten från trä som genererats utomhus vid träbaserade industrier
Abstract [en]

Wood is a natural raw material, and would hardly be considered a risk to the environment. However, the handling of wood materials on an industrial scale has been shown to have a negative impact on water bodies that run-off from industrial sites that process wood-based materials. Most investigations related to water pollution from wood-based industries have focused on large industrial sites such as pulp and paper mills. The goal of the present thesisis to understand better such environmental problems and treatment solutions that occur at most wood handling sites. Where there are large outdoor storage areas for logs and sawdust that are exposed to rainfall or irrigation, such as the wooden-floor and bio-energy sectors. Leachate generated by the contact of water with wood in storage areas contains a large amount of organic matter that is potentially hazardous to water bodies that receive run-off from the site.

It has been found that different wood species yield different leachate compositions, with leachate from oak having the highest pollutants content, followed by leachate from pine. This investigation shows that oak has the potential to leach about 10 times the amount of polyphenols compared with other investigated species (i.e., pine, beech and maple). Furthermore, oak leachates have the lowest ratio of biological oxygen demand at 7 days tochemical oxygen demand (0.12), which suggests a potential problem with the biological degradation of this leachate. It has also been shown that leachate from wood are potentially toxic to aquatic organisms.

Treatability studies with the aim of reducing the environmental impact of wood leachate were conducted on a pilot scale as part of the scope of this thesis. The results showed, among other options, the possibility of using constructed wetlands to treat leachate. It was found that plants and aeration can affect the performance of a wetland. However, the most important factor is the time water spends in the wetland. Filter material that could be used to absorb leachate was also studied. A filter consisting of a mixture of peat and ash (from incinerated organic matter), was used to absorb a specific chemical group (polyphenols) in the leachate. It was also shown that polyphenols are vulnerable to ozone, representing a third viable treatment process.

Abstract [sv]

Trä är ett naturligt råmaterial som knappast anses vara en risk för miljön. Däremot har hanteringen av trämaterial i industriell skala visat sig ha negativ inverkan på vattendrag. De flesta utredningar avseende vattenföroreningar inom träbaserade industrier har fokuserat på stora industrier med stor vattenförbrukning så som massa- och pappersbruk. Lakvatten som alstras vid kontakten mellan vatten och trä innehåller höga halter av organiska ämnen som är potentiellt farliga för vattendrag. Målet med denna avhandling är att få kunskap om ovanstående miljöproblem och möjlig behandlingar av dessa. Förorenat lakvatten skapas av industrier, där stora mängder timmer och sågspån är placerade utomhus och utsätts för regn och bevattning, såsom inom trägolv och bioenergisektorn. Man har funnit att lakning från olika träslag ger olika sammansättningar på lakvattnet, där lakvatten från ek har den högsta halten av föroreningar följt av furu. Denna undersökning visar att ek har potential att laka ut tio gånger så mycket polyfenoler jämfört med andra undersökta arter (tall, bok och lönn). Dessutom har lakvatten från ek den lägsta andelen av biologisk syreförbrukning efter 7dagar per kemisk syreförbrukning (0,12), vilket tyder på ett potentiellt problem med den biologiska nedbrytningen av detta lakvatten. Man har även påvisat att lakvattnet från trä är potentiellt giftigt för akvatiska organismer.

Studier för att försöka minska miljöpåverkan av lakvatten från denna trädsort gjordes i pilotskala inom ramen för denna avhandling. Dessa studier visade bland annat på möjligheterna att använda sig av våtmarker som reningsmetod, där växter och luftning påverkar hur bra en våtmark fungerar. Men den viktigaste faktorn var den ökade uppehållstiden som vattnet får i våtmarken. Utöver studier av våtmarker har också ett filtermaterial studerats, filtret bestod av en blandning av torv och aska, som användes för att absorbera en specifik kemisk grupp i lakvattnet (polyfenoler). I en tredje typ av behandlingsprocess visade det sig också att polyfenoler effektivt kan brytas ned av ozon.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2014. 37 p.
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations, 172/2014
Keyword
Wood leachate, Log yard runoff, Stormwater, Toxicity, Artemia salina, Vibrio fischeri, Constructed wetlands
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-62538 (URN)9789187427862 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-04-20 Created: 2017-04-20 Last updated: 2017-04-20Bibliographically approved

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Svensson, HenricHogland, WilliamMarques, Marcia

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