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Upstream silver source mapping - a case study in Stockholm, Sweden
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
Statistiska Centralbyrån.
Stockholm Vatten.
2014 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 392-397Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Silver (Ag) can be a problem for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and their capability to use sewage sludge as a soil fertilizer. Due to a high accumulation rate in soils, the levels of Ag in the incoming water at the WWTP must be reduced. This study aims to identify major diffuse emission sources in the technosphere through a comprehensive substance flow analysis of Ag in Stockholm, Sweden. Large inflows and stocks of Ag were present in electrical and electronic goods and appliances as well as in jewellery and silverware. The total inflow was 3.2 tonnes (4.2 g/person), the total stock was 100 tonnes (140 g/person) and the total outflow was 330 kg (430 mg/person). Major identified Ag sources with emissions ending up in the WWTP (total 26 kg, 34 mg/person) were food, amalgam and beauty products (via urine and faeces, 12 mg/person or 11% of incoming amount), and textiles (via washing, 17 mg/person or 16% of incoming amount). This study explains approximately 35% of the total 80 kg Ag in the incoming water at Henriksdal WWTP in Stockholm. Plastic, photography and beauty products were identified as possible sources of Ag that need to be examined further.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 69, no 2, p. 392-397
Keywords [en]
diffuse emissions, products, silver, sludge, substance flow analysis, wastewater
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-31796DOI: 10.2166/wst.2013.725ISI: 000331947200023Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84896891005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-31796DiVA, id: diva2:691952
Available from: 2014-01-29 Created: 2014-01-29 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Diffuse emissions from goods - influences on some societal end products
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diffuse emissions from goods - influences on some societal end products
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

End products of society (e.g. sewage sludge and incineration ashes) can be used as indicators of the use of chemicals in consumer goods. Through upstream work the sources of substances released from goods may be identified before the emissions reach the end products.

This thesis is a result of five studies, of which four were conducted using substance flow analyses (SFA) for silver (Ag), bismuth (Bi) and copper (Cu) reaching sewage sludge. The fifth is an SFA that explores the implications of the presence of As (from CCA-treated wood) in ashes. These studies helped fulfil the specific and overall aims of the thesis; to contribute to the general knowledge on diffuse emissions reflected in end products, by examining emissions of some heavy metals from various societal goods and the implications for end products, in this case sewage sludge and, to some extent, ashes.

The results from the studies, of which four had Stockholm as a study object, show the urban flows and accumulated amounts (stocks) of the heavy metals. The largest sources of the metals Ag, Bi and Cu in sewage sludge were identified to be textiles (Ag), cosmetics (Bi) and brake linings (Cu). For As (in CCA-treated wood) and Cu updated SFAs were performed and compared with earlier studies in order to follow the development and changes in flows over time.

The current use of the heavy metals studied can also be seen as a loss of resources, and as the metals should ideally be recovered as a part of a circular economy, urban and landfill mining as well as recycling are alternatives that need further exploring. The legislation of chemicals in consumer goods was identified as an important step in handling corresponding diffuse emissions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2015. p. 166
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 229/2015
Keywords
Arsenic, bismuth, CCA-treated wood, copper, material flow analysis, silver, substance flow analysis, urban flows
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-46805 (URN)978-91-87925-80-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-11-06, Fullriggaren, Landgången 4, Kalmar, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-10-21 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2015-10-21Bibliographically approved

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Amneklev, JennieBergbäck, Bo

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