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Electromagnetic Dispersion Modeling and Analysis for Power Cables
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses electromagnetic wave propagation in power cables. It consists of five papers, where the three first papers are based on one and the same model, and the last two papers are based on a similar but slightly different model. The first model considers electromagnetic modeling in connection with basic transmission line theory with a mismatch calibration of the scattering parameters, while the second model is based on a magnetic frill generator with calibration on the input current.

The two models describe the dispersion characteristics of an 82 km long High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) power cable, and the results are validated with Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) measurements. In both models the relevant bandwidth is 100 kHz, with the result that the fields inside the metallic layers must be calculated due to a large skin-depth. The present study is concerned with Transversal Magnetic (TM) modes of order zero. Higher order TM modes, including the Transversal Electric (TE) modes, will essentially be cut-off in this low-frequency regime.

An asymptotic analysis regarding the low-frequency dispersion characteristics is provided in Paper I. Comparing the result with a numerical solution shows that the low-frequency characteristics of the power cable is complicated, and an asymptotic solution is only valid at frequencies below 1 Hz.

Paper II presents a sensitivity analysis of the propagation constant. It is concluded that some of the electrical parameters of the metallic layers, and of the insulating layer, have a large impact on the model, while other parameters do not perturb the model in any substantial way.

In Paper III a general framework for the electromagnetic modeling is provided. The paper addresses sensitivity analysis, computation, and measurements regarding wave propagation characteristics in power cables.

The asymptotic behavior of the non-discrete radiating mode, the branch-cut, is presented in Paper IV. The result is compared with the first and second propagating Transversal Magnetic (TM) mode.

Finally, Paper V addresses the numerical problems associated with large arguments in the Bessel functions, which are due to the large conductivity parameters of the metallic layers. The introduction of a perfect electric conductor (PEC) and a short illustration of an inverse problem are also discussed in the paper. At the end an analysis is presented regarding uncertainties in the model parameters, which shows that temperature is an important parameter to consider.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2014.
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations, 182/2014
Keyword [en]
power cable, electromagnetic model, dispersion relation, asymptotic analysis, sensitivity analysis
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-40651ISBN: 978-91-87925-07-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-40651DiVA: diva2:793536
Public defence
2014-10-23, D1136, Växjö, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-04-28 Created: 2015-03-07 Last updated: 2015-04-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Low-frequency dispersion characteristics of a multilayered coaxial cable
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-frequency dispersion characteristics of a multilayered coaxial cable
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Engineering Mathematics, ISSN 0022-0833, E-ISSN 1573-2703, Vol. 83, no 1, 169-184 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper provides an exact asymptotic analysis regarding the low-frequency dispersion characteristics of a multilayered coaxial cable. A layer-recursive description of the dispersion function is derived that is well suited for asymptotic analysis. The recursion is based on two well-behaved (meromorphic) subdeterminants defined by a perfectly electrically conducting (PEC) and a perfectly magnetically conducting termination, respectively. For an open waveguide structure, the dispersion function is a combination of two such functions, and there is only one branch point that is related to the exterior domain. It is shown that if there is one isolating layer and a PEC outer shield, then the classical Weierstrass preparation theorem can be used to prove that the low-frequency behavior of the propagation constant is governed by the square root of the complex frequency, and an exact analytical expression for the dominating term of the asymptotic expansion is derived. It is furthermore shown that the same asymptotic expansion is valid to its lowest order even if the outer shield has finite conductivity and there is an infinite exterior region with finite nonzero conductivity. As a practical application of the theory, a high-voltage direct current (HVDC) power cable is analyzed and a numerical solution to the dispersion relation is validated by comparisons with the asymptotic analysis. The comparison reveals that the low-frequency dispersion characteristics of the power cable is very complicated and a first-order asymptotic approximation is valid only at extremely low frequencies (below 1 Hz). It is noted that the only way to come to this conclusion is to actually perform the asymptotic analysis. Hence, for practical modeling purposes, such as with fault localization, an accurate numerical solution to the dispersion relation is necessary and the asymptotic analysis is useful as a validation tool.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2013
National Category
Mathematics Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Physics, Waves and Signals
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-25989 (URN)10.1007/s10665-012-9616-3 (DOI)000327855300009 ()
Available from: 2013-05-31 Created: 2013-05-31 Last updated: 2017-01-10Bibliographically approved
2. Electromagnetic dispersion modeling and sensitivity analysis for HVDC power cables
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electromagnetic dispersion modeling and sensitivity analysis for HVDC power cables
2012 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses electromagnetic wave propagation in High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) power cables. An electromagnetic model, based on long (10 km or more) cables with a frequency range of 0 to 100 kHz, is derived. Relating the frequency to the propagation constant a dispersion relation is formulated using a recursive approach. The propagation constant is found numerically with normalized residue calculation. The paper is concluded with a sensitivity analysis of the propagation constant with respect to the electrical parameters εr (the real relative permittivity) and σ (the conductivity)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University, Scool of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics, 2012
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-22296 (URN)
Available from: 2012-11-14 Created: 2012-11-06 Last updated: 2017-01-10Bibliographically approved
3. Electromagnetic dispersion modeling and measurements for HVDC power cables
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electromagnetic dispersion modeling and measurements for HVDC power cables
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2014 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 29, no 6, 2439-2447 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper provides a general framework for electromagnetic (EM) modeling, sensitivity analysis, computation, and measurements regarding the wave propagation characteristics of high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) power cables. The modeling is motivated by the potential use with transient analysis, partial-discharge measurements, fault localization and monitoring, and is focused on very long (10 km or more) HVDC power cables with transients propagating in the low-frequency regime of about 0-100 kHz. An exact dispersion relation is formulated together with a discussion on practical aspects regarding the computation of the propagation constant. Experimental time-domain measurement data from an 80-km-long HVDC power cable are used to validate the electromagnetic model, and a mismatch calibration procedure is devised to account for the connection between the measurement equipment and the cable. Quantitative sensitivity analysis is devised to study the impact of parameter uncertainty on wave propagation characteristics. The sensitivity analysis can be used to study how material choices affect the propagation characteristics, and to indicate which material parameters need to be identified accurately in order to achieve accurate fault localization. The analysis shows that the sensitivity of the propagation constant due to a change in the conductivity in the three metallic layers (the inner conductor, the intermediate lead shield, and the outer steel armor) is comparable to the sensitivity with respect to the permittivity of the insulating layer. Hence, proper modeling of the EM fields inside the metallic layers is crucial in the low-frequency regime of 0-100 kHz.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2014
National Category
Signal Processing
Research subject
Physics, Waves and Signals
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-27494 (URN)10.1109/TPWRD.2014.2324181 (DOI)000345513600003 ()
Available from: 2013-07-09 Created: 2013-07-09 Last updated: 2017-03-09Bibliographically approved
4. Dispersion modeling and analysis for multilayered open coaxial waveguides
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dispersion modeling and analysis for multilayered open coaxial waveguides
2015 (English)In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 63, no 6, 1791-1799 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a detailed modeling and analysis regarding the dispersion characteristics ofmultilayered open coaxial waveguides or cables. The electromagnetic model is based on a layer recursive computation of axial-symmetric fields in connection with a magnetic frill generator excitation that can be calibrated to the current measured at the input of the cable. The layer recursive formulation enables a stable and efficient numerical computation of the related dispersion functions, as well as a detailed analysis regarding the analytic and asymptotic properties of the associated determinants. Modal contributions as well as the contribution from the associated branch-cut (nondiscrete radiating modes) are defined and analyzed. Measurements and modeling of pulse propagation on an 82-km-long HVDC power cable are presented as a concrete example. In this example, it is concluded that the contribution from the dominating axial-symmetric transverse magnetic mode is sufficient, and that the contribution from the branch-cut is negligible for all practical purposes, and in particular if the exterior domain is lossy. The main contribution of this paper is to provide the necessary modeling and analysistools for a quantitative study of these phenomena.

National Category
Physical Sciences Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-40649 (URN)10.1109/TMTT.2015.2420555 (DOI)000355930300002 ()
Available from: 2015-03-07 Created: 2015-03-07 Last updated: 2017-01-10Bibliographically approved
5. Wave propagation characteristics and model uncertainties for HVDC power cables
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wave propagation characteristics and model uncertainties for HVDC power cables
2015 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 30, no 6, 2527-2534 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a stable and efficient fullwave cable model and a detailed study of the relatedmodel uncertainties regarding the wave propagation characteristics of very long HVDC power cables at low frequencies. The model can be used to predict the dispersion characteristics of the cable with respect to its electromagnetic parameters, or as an inverse problem to estimate some parameters of the cable (armour permeability, metal layer conductivities, temperature, length, etc.) based on measurements. The electromagnetic model is based on a magnetic frill generator that can be calibrated to the current measured at the input of the cable, and a layer recursive computation of the axial-symmetric fields. Measurements of pulse propagation on an 82 km long HVDC power cable over a bandwidth of 100 kHz have been used to validate the model. The main conclusion of the study is that the conductivity (and thus the temperature) of the conductor and the lead sheath are of utmost importance to achieve an accurate model. At the same time, some parameters are in principle insignificant regarding the dispersion characteristics in the low-frequency regime, such as the permittivity and the conductivity of the semi-conducting screens. The paper contains an investigation and a discussion on the electromagnetic properties of all layers of a typical HVDC power cable.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2015
National Category
Physical Sciences Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Natural Science, Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-40650 (URN)10.1109/TPWRD.2015.2456237 (DOI)000365316700019 ()
Available from: 2015-03-07 Created: 2015-03-07 Last updated: 2017-01-10Bibliographically approved

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