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The Increase in Bismuth Consumption as Reflected in Sewage Sludge
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
Statistics Sweden.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
2015 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 226, no 4, 1-11 p., 92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As the use of dangerous substances in consumer products increases, these substances may also be found in society’s end products, among them sewage sludge. Measuring concentrations in sewage sludge can be a way to reflect the consumption of a substance. By using substance flow analysis, the inflow, stock and outflow of the specific substance to, e.g. a city region, may be analysed. Bismuth is a heavy metal that is found in increasing levels in sewage sludge in Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a similar increase cannot be excluded for WWTPs around the world. This study aims to examine possible sources that could explain the amounts measured in one Swedish WWTP. Household products such as cosmetics (24 %) and plastics (14 %) are found to be major sources of Bi measured in sewage sludge. The remaining unidentified amounts in this study (approximately 50 %) are most likely found in effluent waters from industries or sources outside the household. There is, however, no information on measurements of Bi released by industry available and there is no legislation in place that may encourage industry to conduct such measurements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 226, no 4, 1-11 p., 92
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-41028DOI: 10.1007/s11270-015-2374-xISI: 000351523700009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-41028DiVA: diva2:796613
Available from: 2015-03-19 Created: 2015-03-19 Last updated: 2016-08-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Diffuse emissions from goods - influences on some societal end products
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diffuse emissions from goods - influences on some societal end products
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

End products of society (e.g. sewage sludge and incineration ashes) can be used as indicators of the use of chemicals in consumer goods. Through upstream work the sources of substances released from goods may be identified before the emissions reach the end products.

This thesis is a result of five studies, of which four were conducted using substance flow analyses (SFA) for silver (Ag), bismuth (Bi) and copper (Cu) reaching sewage sludge. The fifth is an SFA that explores the implications of the presence of As (from CCA-treated wood) in ashes. These studies helped fulfil the specific and overall aims of the thesis; to contribute to the general knowledge on diffuse emissions reflected in end products, by examining emissions of some heavy metals from various societal goods and the implications for end products, in this case sewage sludge and, to some extent, ashes.

The results from the studies, of which four had Stockholm as a study object, show the urban flows and accumulated amounts (stocks) of the heavy metals. The largest sources of the metals Ag, Bi and Cu in sewage sludge were identified to be textiles (Ag), cosmetics (Bi) and brake linings (Cu). For As (in CCA-treated wood) and Cu updated SFAs were performed and compared with earlier studies in order to follow the development and changes in flows over time.

The current use of the heavy metals studied can also be seen as a loss of resources, and as the metals should ideally be recovered as a part of a circular economy, urban and landfill mining as well as recycling are alternatives that need further exploring. The legislation of chemicals in consumer goods was identified as an important step in handling corresponding diffuse emissions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2015. 166 p.
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations, 229/2015
Keyword
Arsenic, bismuth, CCA-treated wood, copper, material flow analysis, silver, substance flow analysis, urban flows
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-46805 (URN)978-91-87925-80-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-11-06, Fullriggaren, Landgången 4, Kalmar, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-10-21 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2015-10-21Bibliographically approved

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Amneklev, JennieAugustsson, AnnaBergbäck, Bo
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