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Bismuth in cosmetic products and its implications for sewage sludge management
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
Statistics Sweden.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
2015 (English)In: SETAC Europe 25th Annual Meeting, Barcelona, 3-7 May, 2015, 2015Conference paper, Abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Bismuth (Bi) is a heavy metal that over recent years has shown increasing concentrations in sewage sludge in Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), indicating an increasing Bi use in the society. The high accumulation rate of Bi in soil when sewage sludge is used as fertilizer on arable land is of environmental concern. Bismuth is used in various consumer products to replace lead, but which sources in the society that explain the increasing amount of Bi in sewage sludge in the municipal WWTPs is however unknown. This study aimed to analyze one product group suspected to contain Bi, cosmetics, and three different products were chosen (foundation, powder and eye shadow) in order to study the flows in urban wastewater in Stockholm, Sweden. The chemical analyses showed that Bi was present in very high concentrations (>100 000 mg/kg) in one third of the analyzed foundation and powder samples, while mainly low concentrations were found in eye shadow. These cosmetic products explained approximately 24 % of the measured total Bi amounts reaching the WWTP in 2012, making cosmetics a major Bi source. It is therefore recommended to monitor the Bi concentrations in sewage sludge regularly. Efforts should be made to further examine the sources of Bi to WWTPs and to decrease the emission from Bi in cosmetics to the WWTPs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015.
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-43303OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-43303DiVA: diva2:812846
Conference
SETAC Europe 25th Annual Meeting, Barcelona, 3-7 May, 2015
Available from: 2015-05-20 Created: 2015-05-20 Last updated: 2015-07-28Bibliographically approved

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Amneklev, JennieAugustsson, AnnaBergbäck, Bo
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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
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  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
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Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf